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I have a simple experiment with two groups of subjects (each group has $30$ subjects). At the outset of the study, the two groups have shown to be equal in terms of the dependent variable. Now we introduce a treatment to one of the groups, keeping the second group as the control group.

Questions:

1- To measure the efficacy of the treatment, should I only run one independent samples t-test between the treatment and experimental groups?

2- Suppose the two groups were not equal at the outset of the study. What design I could employ to measure the efficacy of the treatment in these two groups?

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Q 1: Yes. By using one of two groups take measurements after treatment and proceed with paired t-test.Further, to validate your results , you can do the same procedure (paired t -test) for the second group giving same treatment.

Q 2 may be asked separately giving more details about design , methodology especially about data- collection and data-type etc.,

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