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$\begingroup$

I am a new user of WinBUGS and have one question for your help. After running the following code, I got parameters of beta0 through beta4 (stats, density), but I don't know how to get the prediction of the last value of h, which I set to NA to model in the code.

Does anyone can given me a hint? Any advice would be greatly appreciated.


model {
for(i in 1: N) {
CF01[i] ~ dnorm(0, 20)
CF02[i]  ~ dnorm(0, 1)
h[i] ~ dpois (lambda [i])
log(lambda [i]) <- beta0 + beta1*CF03[i] + beta2*CF02[i] + beta3*CF01[i] + beta4*IND[i]
}
beta0 ~ dnorm(0.0, 1.0E-6)
beta1 ~ dnorm(0.0, 1.0E-6)
beta2 ~ dnorm(0.0, 1.0E-6)
beta3 ~ dnorm(0.0, 1.0E-6)
beta4  <- log(p)
p ~ dunif(lower, upper)
}

INITS
list(beta0 = 0, beta1 = 0, beta2 = 0, beta3 = 0, p = 0.9)

DATA(LIST)
list(N = 154, lower = 0.80, upper = 0.95,

h = c(1, 4, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 0, 4, 2,
3, 0, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 1, 0, 1, 3, 3, 3, 1, 0, 1,
0, 5, 2, 1, 2, 1, 3, 3, 1, 1, 0, 2, 2, 0, 3, 0, 0, 3, 2, 2, 2,
1, 0, 3, 3, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 2, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 2, 5,
0, 2, 1, 0, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 0, 3, 2, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 0, 1, 3, 3,
3, 1, 0, 0, 1, 2, 1, 0, 1, 4, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1,
1, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 5, 1, 1, 1, 3, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 2, 1,
0, 3, 3, 0, 0, 1, 2, 6, NA),

CF03 = c(-1.575, 0.170, -1.040, -0.010, -0.750,
0.665, -0.250, 0.145, -0.345, -1.915, -1.515,
0.215, -1.040, -0.035, 0.805, -0.860, -1.775,
1.725, -1.345, 1.055, -1.935, -0.160, -0.075,
-1.305, 1.175, 0.130, -1.025, -0.630, 0.065,
-0.665, 0.415, -0.660, -1.145, 0.165, 0.955,
-0.920, 0.250, -0.365, 0.750, 0.045, -2.760,
-0.520, -0.095, 0.700, 0.155, -0.580, -0.970,
-0.685, -0.640, -0.900, -0.250, -1.355, -1.330,
0.440, -1.505, -1.715, -0.330, 1.375, -1.135,
-1.285, 0.605, 0.360, 0.705, 1.380, -2.385, -1.875,
-0.390, 0.770, 1.605, -0.430, -1.120, 1.575, 0.440,
-1.320, -0.540, -1.490, -1.815, -2.395, 0.305,
0.735, -0.790, -1.070, -1.085, -0.540, -0.935,
-0.790, 1.400, 0.310, -1.150, -0.725, -0.150,
-0.640, 2.040, -1.180, -0.235, -0.070, -0.500,
-0.750, -1.450, -0.235, -1.635, -0.460, -1.855,
-0.925, 0.075, 2.900, -0.820, -0.170, -0.355,
-0.170, 0.595, 0.655, 0.070, 0.330, 0.395, 1.165,
0.750, -0.275, -0.700, 0.880, -0.970, 1.155, 0.600,
-0.075, -1.120, 1.480, -1.255, 0.255, 0.725,
-1.230, -0.760, -0.380, -0.015, -1.005, -1.605,
0.435, -0.695, -1.995, 0.315, -0.385, -0.175,
-0.470, -1.215, 0.780, -1.860, -0.035, -2.700,
-1.055, 1.210, 0.600, -0.710, 0.425, 0.155, -0.525,
-0.565),

CF02 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,
NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, 0.38, 0.06, -0.94,
-0.02, -0.28, -0.78, -0.95, 2.33, 1.43, 1.24, 1.26,
-0.75, -1.5, -2.09, 1.01, -0.05, 2.48, 2.48, 0.46,
0.46, -0.2, -1.11, 0.52, -0.37, 0.58, 0.86, 0.59,
-0.12, -1.33, 1.4, -1.84, -1.4, -0.76, -0.23,
-1.78, -1.43, 1.2, 0.32, 1.87, 0.43, -1.71, -0.54,
-1.25, -1.01, -1.98, 0.52, -1.07, -0.44, -0.24,
-1.31, -2.14, -0.43, 2.47, -0.09, -1.32, -0.3,
-0.99, 1.1, 0.41, 1.01, -0.19, 0.45, -0.07, -1.41,
0.87, 0.68, 1.61, 0.36, -1.06, -0.44, -0.16, 0.72,
-0.69, -0.94, 0.11, 1.25, 0.33, -0.05, 0.87, -0.37,
-0.2, -2.22, 0.26, -0.53, -1.59, 0.04, 0.16, -2.66,
-0.21, -0.92, 0.25, -1.36, -1.62, 0.61, -0.2, 0,
1.14, 0.27, -0.64, 2.29, -0.56, -0.59, 0.44, -0.05,
0.56, 0.71, 0.32, -0.38, 0.01, -1.62, 1.74, 0.27, 0.97,
1.22, -0.21, -0.05, 1.15, 1.49, -0.15, 0.05, -0.87,
-0.3, -0.08, 0.5, 0.84, -1.67, 0.69, 0.47, 0.44,
-1.35, -0.24, -1.5, -1.32, -0.08, 0.76, -0.57,
-0.84, -1.11, 1.94, -0.68),

CF01 = c(NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,
NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,
NA, -0.117, -0.211, -0.333, -0.229, -0.272,
-0.243, -0.148, 0.191, -0.263, -0.239, -0.168,
-0.381, -0.512, -0.338, -0.296, 0.067, 0.104,
-0.254, -0.167, -0.526, -0.096, -0.43, 0.013,
-0.438, -0.297, -0.131, -0.098, -0.046, -0.063,
-0.194, -0.155, -0.645, -0.603, -0.374, -0.214,
-0.165, -0.509, -0.171, -0.442, -0.468, -0.289,
-0.427, -0.519, -0.454, 0.046, -0.275, -0.401,
-0.542, -0.488, -0.52, -0.018, -0.551, -0.444,
-0.254, -0.286, 0.048, -0.03, -0.015, -0.219,
-0.029, 0.059, 0.007, 0.157, 0.141, -0.035, 0.136,
0.526, 0.113, 0.22, -0.022, -0.173, 0.021, -0.027,
0.261, 0.082, -0.266, -0.284, -0.097, 0.097, -0.06,
0.397, 0.315, 0.302, -0.026, 0.268, -0.111, 0.084,
0.14, -0.073, 0.287, 0.061, 0.035, -0.022, -0.091,
-0.22, -0.021, -0.17, -0.184, 0.121, -0.192,
-0.24, -0.283, -0.003, -0.45, -0.138, -0.143,
0.017, -0.245, 0.003, 0.108, 0.015, -0.219, 0.09,
-0.22, -0.004, -0.178, 0.396, 0.204, 0.342, 0.079,
-0.034, -0.122, -0.24, -0.125, 0.382, 0.072, 0.294,
0.577, 0.4, 0.213, 0.359, 0.074, 0.388, 0.253, 0.167),

IND = c(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0))
$\endgroup$
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  • $\begingroup$ Aren't you just asking for the value of lambda[N]? $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Jul 2 '12 at 20:33
  • $\begingroup$ @whuber yes, I think that's correct, but more fundamentally, you need to have things you want to predict (ie, have a posterior distribution for) be distinct from things you've already observed. You can either make the prediction explicitly in winbugs or in postprocessing by using the samples of the betas. $\endgroup$
    – atiretoo
    Jul 2 '12 at 22:47
  • $\begingroup$ @atiretoo As far as I can tell, the lambdas are exactly what one wants to predict: this is a generalized linear model for a Poisson distribution with log link and the lambdas are the predicted Poisson parameters. They have not been observed. I believe all one needs to do here is to set a monitor on lambda[N]. $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Jul 3 '12 at 13:23
  • $\begingroup$ @whuber, I'd rather say monitor h[N] instead of lambda[N] ... and you get the posterior distribution of the predicted value. $\endgroup$
    – Tomas
    Jul 3 '12 at 14:10
  • $\begingroup$ @tomek but h[N] is not the predicted value: it will be a collection of draws from a set of predicted Poisson distributions. As such it combines variation in the Poisson parameters and variation from those Poisson distributions themselves. What is relevant is the posterior distribution of lambda[N]. $\endgroup$
    – whuber
    Jul 3 '12 at 14:28
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$\begingroup$

Just add the variable h to the list of the parameters to be monitored. If you are using package like R2WinBUGS, then add variable h to to the list passed to parameters.to.save argument to the bugs function. Then look at your last value in h (the one with NA) - you will get a posterior distribution there.

This is usual way to make predictions in bayesian inference (see also this question). It is nice and simple! No more separation of parameter evaluation and prediction. Everything is done at once. The posterior distrubution of parameters is given by the actual data and propagated to the NA values (as "predictions").

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  • $\begingroup$ Tomas, thanks for your help. I try to monitor the variable of h in Sample Monitor Tool but it doesn't work. Could you please help me again? The following is the procedure I did in WinBUGS (I do not know how to use R2WinBUGS): 1) select Sample in Sample Monitor Tool 2) type h in the white box marked node 3) click on the button marked set 4) h is not on the list of parameters I want to monitor, while other parameters (beta0, beta1, beta2, beta3, an p) are showed in the list. Do you know how can I add "h" to the list of parameters I want to monitor? Thank again! $\endgroup$
    – Bo Yu
    Jul 3 '12 at 13:40
  • $\begingroup$ @BoYu, I don't know how to do it directly in WinBUGS since I run WinBUGS from R, using the R2WinBUGS package. It is much more practical because you can just save the R script and run it all as a batch, along with producing your own graphs etc. Look here for example scripts. $\endgroup$
    – Tomas
    Jul 3 '12 at 14:07
  • $\begingroup$ That said, it will for sure be also possible in WinBUGS itself, but I don't know how (and I guess most people call it from R). $\endgroup$
    – Tomas
    Jul 3 '12 at 14:09
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ First of all, thank you, whuber, atiretoo, and Tomas! As whuber already mentioned, yes, it is a generalized linear model, the variable of h is fitted by Poisson distribution with varying rate (lambda) conditioned with different predictors (CF01, CF02, CF03, and IND). The last value of h is what I need to know and is not observed (marked as NA), while all other values of h are observed. I think whuber is right, I need to set lambda as a parameter in Sample Monitor Tool and check the stats of the last value of lambda, and further get what is my prediction of last h. Thanks all. $\endgroup$
    – Bo Yu
    Jul 3 '12 at 15:24
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @ Tomas, thank your so much. Yes, you are right! WinBUGS provides the prediction of h[N], including stats and probability density. I got it now. Best Regards, $\endgroup$
    – Bo Yu
    Jul 3 '12 at 19:08

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