# Posterior distribution $\boldsymbol\theta \mid \mathbf{y}$ for linear regression model

In the linear regression model, we have $$\mathbf{y} \mid \boldsymbol\theta \sim \mathcal{N}(\mathbf{X}\boldsymbol\theta, \boldsymbol\Sigma_{\boldsymbol\eta})$$ $$\boldsymbol\theta \sim \mathcal{N}(\boldsymbol\theta_0, \boldsymbol\Sigma_0)$$

I am interested in finding the distribution of $\boldsymbol\theta \mid\mathbf{y}$.

From my work after Math StackExchange as well as a more general result that I used, as well as a more general result that I was given here in Stats SE, I obtain $$\boldsymbol\theta \mid \mathbf{y} \sim \mathcal{N}\left(\left(\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{X}+\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0 \right)^{-1}(\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0\boldsymbol\theta_0+\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma_{\boldsymbol\eta}^{-1}\mathbf{y}), \left(\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{X}+\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0 \right)^{-1}\right)\text{.}\tag{1}$$ However, Theodoridis states that on p. 88 of Machine Learning that $$\mathbb{E}[\boldsymbol\theta \mid \mathbf{y}]=\boldsymbol\theta_0 + \left(\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{X}+\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0 \right)^{-1}\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma_{\boldsymbol\eta}^{-1}(\mathbf{y}-\mathbf{X}\boldsymbol\theta_0)\tag{2}$$ (our variance matrices agree).

I don't see how $\mathbb{E}[\boldsymbol\theta \mid \mathbf{y}]$ in $(1)$ and $(2)$ should agree. I attempted using the Woodbury identity and obtained $$\left(\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{X}+\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0 \right)^{-1}=\boldsymbol\Sigma_0-\boldsymbol\Sigma_0\mathbf{X}^{\prime}(\boldsymbol\Sigma_{\boldsymbol\eta}+\mathbf{X}\boldsymbol\Sigma_0\mathbf{X}^{\prime})^{-1}\mathbf{X}\boldsymbol\Sigma_0$$ and when doing the multiplication as in $(1)$, I obtain $$\left(\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{X}+\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0 \right)^{-1}(\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_0\boldsymbol\theta_0+\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma_{\boldsymbol\eta}^{-1}\mathbf{y})=\boldsymbol\theta_0+\boldsymbol\theta_0\mathbf{X}^{\prime}\boldsymbol\Sigma^{-1}_{\boldsymbol\eta}\mathbf{y}-\text{a mess...}$$ which doesn't look correct. Is there something I'm missing here?

• In the expectation of (1) write $\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_0^{-1} \boldsymbol{\theta}_0$ as $[\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_0^{-1} + \mathbf{X}'\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_{\boldsymbol{\eta}}^{-1}\mathbf{X}] \boldsymbol{\theta}_0 - \mathbf{X}'\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_{\boldsymbol{\eta}}^{-1}\mathbf{X} \boldsymbol{\theta}_0$.
– Yves
Jan 7, 2018 at 15:04
• @Yves Thank you very much! If you would like to put that as an answer, please do so, and I can award you points. Jan 7, 2018 at 16:15

In the expectation of (1) write $\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_0^{-1} \boldsymbol{\theta}_0$ as $[\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_0^{-1} + \mathbf{X}'\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_{\boldsymbol{\eta}}^{-1} \mathbf{X}] \, \boldsymbol{\theta}_0 - \mathbf{X}'\boldsymbol{\Sigma}_{\boldsymbol{\eta}}^{-1}\mathbf{X} \boldsymbol{\theta}_0$. By simply rearranging we get (2).