In the article Sequential updating of conditional probabilities on directed graphical structures by Spiegelhalter and Lauritzen they give an approximation to the expectation of a logistic transformed Gaussian random variable $\theta \sim N(\mu, \sigma^2)$. This uses the Gaussian cdf function $\Phi$ in the approximation

$$ \exp(\theta)/(1 + \exp(\theta)) \approx \Phi(\theta \epsilon) $$

for an appropriately chosen $\epsilon$ (in their case they chose $\epsilon = 0.607$). Hence

$$ \mathbb{E} \left [ \exp(\theta)/(1 + \exp(\theta))\right ] \approx \int_{- \infty}^{\infty} \Phi(\theta \epsilon) \phi(\theta | \mu, \sigma^2) d \theta$$

where $\phi$ is a Gaussian pdf function. The integral can be written as

$$ \int_{\infty}^{\infty} \Pr(U < 0 | \theta) \phi(\theta|\mu, \sigma^2) d\theta $$

where $U \sim N(-\theta, \epsilon^{-2})$ and the integral is then simply the marginal $\Pr(U < 0)$. Note that as $\theta \sim N(\mu, \sigma^2)$, we have $U \sim N(-\mu, \sigma^2 + \epsilon^{-2})$. Hence

$$ \mathbb{E} \left [ \exp(\theta)/(1 + \exp(\theta))\right ] \approx \Pr(U < 0) = \Phi(\frac{\mu}{\sqrt{\sigma^2 + \epsilon^{-2}}})$$

We can then use the initial approximation in the reverse direction to get

$$ \mathbb{E} \left [ \exp(\theta)/(1 + \exp(\theta))\right ] \approx \exp(c \mu)/(1 + \exp(c \mu)) $$

where $c = (1 + \epsilon^2 \sigma^2)^{-1/2}$.


My question is, are there any approximations to the expectation of a softmax transformation of Gaussian multivariate variables. In particular, let

$$ \boldsymbol{Z} \sim MVN(\boldsymbol{\mu}, \Sigma) \in \mathbb{R}^{n} $$

Define the $k$ activations for each discrete outcome as

$$ f_i(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_i) = \boldsymbol{w}_i^T \boldsymbol{Z} $$

Finally define our softmax transformed activations as $$ P_i(\boldsymbol{Z}) = \frac{\exp(f_i(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_i))}{\sum_{j=1}^k \exp(f_j(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_j))} $$

What I want is an estimate to the expectation $$ \mathbb{E}[P_i(\boldsymbol{Z})] $$

Note that in the case $k=2$, we have

$$ P_1(\boldsymbol{Z}) = \frac{\exp(f_1(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_1))}{ \exp(f_1(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_1)) + \exp(f_2(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_2))} $$


$$ P_1(\boldsymbol{Z}) = \frac{\exp(f_1(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_1) - f_2(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_2))}{ \exp(f_1(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_1)- f_2(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_2)) + 1} $$

and as $f_1(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_1) - f_2(\boldsymbol{Z}, \boldsymbol{w}_2)$ is simply the sum of correlated Gaussian random variables, it is also Gaussian distributed. Hence we can use the initial approximation.

Can we generalise for $k > 2$?


1 Answer 1


I am sorry if I rescue a fairly old question but I was facing a very similar problem recently and I stumble upon a paper that might offer some help. The article is: "Semi-analytical approximations to statistical moments of sigmoid and softmax mappings of normal variables" at https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.00091.pdf

Expectation of Softmax approximation

For computing the average value of a softmax mapping $\pi \left( \mathbf{\mathsf{x}} \right)$ of multi-normal distributed variables $\mathbf{\mathsf{x}} \sim \mathcal{N}_D \left( \mathbf{\mu}, \mathbf{\Sigma} \right)$ the author provides the following approximation:

$$ \mathbb{E} \left[ \pi^k (\mathbf{\mathsf{x}}) \right] \simeq \frac{1}{2 - D + \sum_{k' \neq k} \frac{1}{\mathbb{E} \left[ \sigma \left( x^k - x^{k'} \right) \right]}} $$

Where $x^k$ represents the $k$-component of the $\mathbf{\mathsf{x}}$ D-dimensional vector and $\sigma \left( x \right)$ represent the one-dimensional sigmoidal function. To evaluate this formula one needs to compute the average value $\mathbb{E} \left[ \sigma (x) \right]$ for which you could use your own approximation (a very similar approximation is again provided in the aformentioned article).

This formula is based on a re-writing of the softmax formula in terms of sigmoids and starts from the $D=2$ case you mentioned where the result is "exact" (as much as an approximation can be) and postulate the validity of their expression for $D>2$. They validate their proposal by means of numerical validation.


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