# Different results for between/within groups and within group regression analyses

I have a lmer model that analyse the interaction between a treatment (4 levels. Name: Relation_PenultimateLast) and 3 groups (ExpertiseType), crossed. In this model I have 3 by-group random effects.

The function used is lmer from the library lme4, extended through the lmerTest library.

Here the formula:

f.e.model = lmer(Score ~ Relation_PenultimateLast*ExpertiseType + (1|TrajectoryType) + (1|StimulusType) + (1|LastPosition), data=datasheet.complete)


Results:

Scaled residuals:
Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max
-2.43700 -0.87535 -0.03117  0.76091  2.06034

Random effects:
Groups         Name        Variance Std.Dev.
TrajectoryType (Intercept) 0.019520 0.13971
LastPosition   (Intercept) 0.008778 0.09369
StimulusType   (Intercept) 0.028348 0.16837
Residual                   1.292387 1.13683
Number of obs: 8200, groups:
TrajectoryType, 25; LastPosition, 8; StimulusType, 4

Fixed effects:
Estimate Std. Error         df t value
(Intercept)                               3.34934    0.13401   17.00000  24.993
Relation_PenultimateLast                 -0.08738    0.03453   77.00000  -2.531
ExpertiseType                            -0.09808    0.03639 8165.00000  -2.695
Relation_PenultimateLast:ExpertiseType    0.05224    0.01271 8165.00000   4.110
Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept)                            7.55e-15 ***
Relation_PenultimateLast                0.01343 *
ExpertiseType                           0.00705 **
Relation_PenultimateLast:ExpertiseType 3.99e-05 ***


Using the plot function:

f.e.model.plot = datasheet.complete
f.e.model.plot$fit <- predict(f.e.model) interaction.plot(x.factor = f.e.model.plot$Relation_PenultimateLast, trace.factor = f.e.model.plot$ExpertiseType, response = f.e.model.plot$fit, fun = mean,
type = "b", legend = TRUE,
fixed=TRUE,
xlab = "Penultimate_Last category", ylab="Cadential effectiveness", trace.label = "Expertise",
pch=c(1,19), col = c("#00AFBB", "#E7B800", "#FF0000")
)


I obtain this graph: Note the yellow line, ParticipantType = 2

I would expect the yellow line to represent the effects of the treatment within the group 2, but if I run the same analysis mode within the group:

datasheet.complete.performers = subset(datasheet.complete, ExpertiseType==2)   #create a subset with only composers
f.e.model.performers = lmer(Score ~ Relation_PenultimateLast + (1|TrajectoryType) + (1|StimulusType) + (1|LastPosition), data=datasheet.complete.performers)


Results:

Scaled residuals:
Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max
-2.41905 -0.87678  0.02313  0.76503  1.85794

Random effects:
Groups         Name        Variance Std.Dev.
TrajectoryType (Intercept) 0.01906  0.1381
LastPosition   (Intercept) 0.01179  0.1086
StimulusType   (Intercept) 0.06358  0.2522
Residual                   1.39162  1.1797
Number of obs: 2400, groups:
TrajectoryType, 25; LastPosition, 8; StimulusType, 4

Fixed effects:
Estimate Std. Error       df t value Pr(>|t|)
(Intercept)               3.40381    0.15825  6.70100  21.509 1.96e-07 ***
Relation_PenultimateLast -0.03909    0.03059 23.09500  -1.278    0.214


I obtain a complete different scenario:

f.e.model.performers.plot = datasheet.complete.performers
f.e.model.performers.plot$fit <- predict(f.e.model.performers) interaction.plot(x.factor = f.e.model.performers.plot$Relation_PenultimateLast, trace.factor = f.e.model.performers.plot$ExpertiseType, response = f.e.model.performers.plot$fit, fun = mean,
type = "b", legend = TRUE,
fixed=TRUE,
xlab = "Penultimate_Last category", ylab="Cadential effectiveness", trace.label = "Expertise",
pch=c(1,19), col = c("#E7B800")) Should not the two representation of the effect of Relation_PenultimateLast be the same? Should I consider the second graph the correct representation? Or should this be a warning that there is still some random effect that is not counted in the formula?

• Welcome to CV. This is a great question. Please add the library you are using. – Ferdi Jan 11 '18 at 14:28
• Hi @Ferdi, I updated the question. Paragraph 2 - lme4 + lmerTest. I don't know what's the library for the predict() function, unfortunately – Luca Danieli Jan 11 '18 at 14:32
• Thank you. predict() should be already installed. Have a look here: rdocumentation.org/packages/stats/versions/3.4.3/topics/predict – Ferdi Jan 11 '18 at 14:49
• Is it possible that the predict() function is not good for lmer() as they suppose in this post? stats.stackexchange.com/questions/174203/… – Luca Danieli Jan 11 '18 at 14:52
• If you do not get a satisfactory response here then (1) try adding the tag for nlme (2) ask on the r-sig-mixed-models mailing list (telling them you failed here of course). I suspect this may have to do with the ransom effects but I am not an expert here so I leave that to others to try to answer. – mdewey Jan 11 '18 at 14:57