I fit a CFA model in R with the lavaan package using the "MLM" estimator, as the data follows a non-normal multivariate distribution. All items are scaled on a six-point scale.

fit_E <- lavaan::cfa(E_model, data = x, std.lv = FALSE, orthogonal = TRUE, estimator = "MLM")
summary(fit_E, fit.measures = TRUE, modindices = TRUE, standardized = T)

All factor loadings exceed 1 in the standardized solution. Did I do something wrong?

parameterEstimates(fit_E, standardized=T) %>% 
  filter(op == "=~") %>% 
  select('Latent Factor'=lhs, Indicator=rhs, B=est, SE=se, Z=z, 'p-value'=pvalue, Beta=std.all) %>% 
  kable(digits = 3, format="pandoc", caption="Factor Loadings")

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1 Answer 1


In lavaan specifying standardized=T returns standardized loadings in a separate column in your output. The entire solution is not standardized and the first column still includes your unstandardized loadings, which will vary in magnitude as a function of the indicator variables' scales.

For standardized loadings look for std.all in your output, what you have stored as Beta in your table.


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