The term "weakly identified," as Gelman is using it in your linked post, means that there is a region of parameter space that produces similar likelihood values.
If you think of the likelihood as a surface, then a weakly identified model has a "flat" likelihood around the maximum likelihood solution. This is problematic because it implies a high degree of uncertainty in your parameter estimate. By contrast, if the likelihood were very "peaked" around the maximum likelihood solution, then the uncertainty in the parameter estimate would be small.
You asked if weak identification referred to the case where different parameter values lead to similar likelihoods. This is partly correct. If these "nearly equivalent" parameters are all in one region of space (the "ridge" referred to by Gelman), then we have weak identifiability. If, however, the likelihood function has several distinct regions of near-maximum likelihood, then it is more common to call the model "locally identifiable." For example, when fitting a Gaussian distribution to observations, the standard deviation $\sigma$ is technically only locally identifiable, because both $\hat\sigma$ and $-\hat\sigma$ are maximum likelihood solutions. However, when we impose the restriction that $\sigma>0$, the model becomes identifiable.