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I have read contradictory posts whether randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies can be combined in a meta-analysis.

Thus, 1) I am requesting literature on this specific topic (epidemiologically and biostatiscally) and, 2) I am keen and interested in your arguments on this topic.

Regards, C.

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You have many examples in the literature, such as this one (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26537988), but you have to work a bit harder to find methodological papers, given that many experts don't support this method.

I favor it, though, for two reasons. If you pool RCTs and unadjusted estimated from observational studies, you can easily highlight discrepancies and biases in the latter studies.

If you pool instead RCTs and adjusted estimates from observational studies, you might possibly increase precision of estimates without biasing them too much

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