Excuse my ignorance. I tried to look up the questions but couldn't find it. I had a discussion today whether it is possible that a study result will have a p<0.05 yet that would be caused by chance (i.e. a possible underpowered study - if I got all the terms correctly). My thoughts were that if there is a statistically significant difference (proven by p=0.03) then the study is automatically powered enough to detect that difference.