Fisher-type unit-root test for lntotalghgemissionsex_ln
Based on Phillips-Perron tests
Ho: All panels contain unit roots           Number of panels  =     26
Ha: At least one panel is stationary        Number of periods =      5

AR parameter:    Panel-specific             Asymptotics: T -> Infinity
Panel means:     Included
Time trend:      Not included
Newey-West lags: 0 lags
                                  Statistic      p-value
 Inverse chi-squared(52)   P       172.8402       0.0000
 Inverse normal            Z         0.3495       0.6367
 Inverse logit t(134)      L*       -3.7084       0.0002
 Modified inv. chi-squared Pm       11.8494       0.0000
 P statistic requires number of panels to be finite.
 Other statistics are suitable for finite or infinite number of panels.


closed as unclear what you're asking by AdamO, kjetil b halvorsen, Michael Chernick, COOLSerdash, Jeremy Miles May 16 '18 at 22:49

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The output says it pretty succintly:

$H_0$: All panels contain unit roots (i.e., all time series in the panel are nonstationary)


$H_1$: At least one panel is stationary.

Hence, three out of four tests conclude, via the small p-values, that there is some stationarity in the panel, while $Z$ does not reject. Such contradictions are not uncommon among (panel) unit root tests, as they are not asymptotically equivalent.

I would note that with $T=5$, the results are probably not trustworthy at all given that the asymptotics are derived under the assumption that $T\to\infty$.


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