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I want to know if there are differences in firing rate of one neuron between two types of trials: left and right. The data are non-normal, paired and unmatched and the size of samples is different.

For example, I want to compare 15 firing rate for left trials with 11 firing rate for right trials. If I had the same size of trials, I could use Wilcoxon, but it's not the case.

Do you know what test should I choose?

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    $\begingroup$ Could you please elaborate on how data could be "paired" yet have different sample sizes? $\endgroup$ – whuber May 17 '18 at 13:26
  • $\begingroup$ If there are a different number of trials, how can they be paired? ** sorry, just saw whuber already asked this question $\endgroup$ – rw2 May 17 '18 at 13:33
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It seems strange that your data is paired, but you have different sample sizes - maybe you measured firing rate for left and right trials for 11 of the samples, but only left trials for the remaining 4 samples?

If that is the case you could think about using a mixed-effects model. Firing rate would be your response, and you'd be testing whether left/right was a significant predictor. If some of your data is paired, you could include sample (i.e. pair) as a random effect.

You mention that your data are non-normal, but don't elaborate. It may be that a generalized linear mixed effects model would be most appropriate. e.g. if your response is count data, you could specify a poisson distribution.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your response. I checked normality of data with Shapiro test, histograms shapes and q-q plots. Although number of trials are different for left and right, every firing rate belong to the same neuron. So, it means they are paired, right? $\endgroup$ – Ana Fernandez May 17 '18 at 15:20
  • $\begingroup$ And what about applying a Wilcoxon test by adding NaNs to right conditions until getting the same size as left condition? So I would have the same size of samples $\endgroup$ – Ana Fernandez May 17 '18 at 16:37
  • $\begingroup$ It really doesn’t sound like paired data to me, but I don’t know anything about firing neurons and am struggling to understand your experimental design. Maybe you could add a comment to explain it in more detail? Is it the same neuron for all measurements, or just pairs of measurement? $\endgroup$ – rw2 May 19 '18 at 14:01

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