I'm working my way through Rasmussen and Williams' classical work Gaussian Process for Machine Learning, and attempting to implement a lot of their theory in Python. I've attempted to fit a sin(x) function using a GP Regressor using a simple RBF kernel:

class Kernel:
    def get(x_1, x_2):
        return np.exp(-0.5 * np.subtract.outer(x_1, x_2) ** 2)

I intentionally disregarded the hyperparameters within the RBF for the sake of simplicity when first implementing this. I use np.random.choice to randomly select datapoints from X_sin and y_sin to progressively feed into my GPR.

Issue #1: Predictions Asymptotically Approach Positive/Negative Infinity

The GPR itself works relatively well with only a few (6) data points. The orange dots show the actual sin function data points (plus a small amount of noise), and the red data points show sin function data points that have been exposed to the GPR (observed). enter image description here

However, I'll frequently get fits that look like this with more data points: enter image description here

Is this an issue of hyperparameter tuning with my RBF kernel? How can I improve the stability of my predictions so that they don't fly off to positive / negative infinity at the edges?

Issue #2: Singular Matrices for K(X,X)

Moreover, I'm also finding that K(X,X)- the covariance matrix of observed training data is often singular, and therefore not invertible: enter image description here. I am currently not adding $σ^2I$ to my kernel, as the equation states, so my implementation is more like $K(X,X)^{-1}$ instead of $[K(X,X) + σ^{2}I]^{-1}$. Is the solution to my singular matrix issue as simple as simply adding a small amount of noise to this covariance matrix, or is there a more appropriate solution? Rasmussen and Williams actually suggest another method in Equation 3.26:

\begin{equation} B = I + W^{\frac{1}{2}}KW^{\frac{1}{2}} \end{equation}

$B$ is supposed to be guaranteed to be well-conditioned for lots of covariance functions, but I have no clue what $W$ is supposed to be here. In fact, the authors say themselves

Sometimes it is suggested that it can be useful to replace $K$ by $K + Iε$ where is a small constant, to improve the numerical conditioning10 of K. However, by taking care with the implementation details as above this should not be necessary.


1 Answer 1


A very useful project to grow intuition around Gaussian processes!

[I'll try to write this as intuitive rather than mathematical]

The two problems are very much related. The kernel you are using is firstly does not have any i.i.d. Gaussian noise on it (as you noted), however the data itself does have noise. That is not a good idea as you are telling your function to both be very smooth with a long length scale while also passing exactly through each point - this will cause an issue.

The covariance matrix will have non-zero eigenvalues but they will be very very close and the small computational precision of your computer starts to have effect. This is known as numerical instabilities. There are a number of ways to get around it:

1) add noise to the observations; that is to say add the $I\sigma_n^2$ to the process, the data clearly has noise so this is actually a good thing!

2) perform a low rank approximation to your GP; that is to say do an eigenvalue / eigenvector decomposition and clip all negligible eigenvalues. The covariance matrix is now low rank and you can easily invert the non-zero eigenvalues giving you a pseudo inverse of the covariance matrix. Be warned though that your uncertainty will be essentially zero as you will have only a few degrees of freedom and clearly many many points.

I believe the GPML solution you mentioned is another reasonable approach but hopefully you get the idea. The addition of $I\epsilon$ is very popular and essentially adds a small bit of noise until the matrix becomes well conditioned. This is how the GPs in GPy are implemented for example.

  • $\begingroup$ Thanks a lot! Just one more question- given me lots of food for thought. I'm now attempting to perform the low rank approximation myself. Apologies in advance if it's somewhat obvious, but I was planning on using PCA or SVD as the "low rank approximation". If I had a covariance matrix of 16 x 16, I'd get a 16 x 5 (where 5 is the reduced dimension). Am I clipping the rows of the matrix to get a 5x5 square matrix (in order to invert it?) $\endgroup$
    – Yu Chen
    Jun 23, 2018 at 22:20
  • $\begingroup$ Also, since you're performing np.dot(k_x_new_x.T, self.inv_k_x_x).dot(self.y) to generate the prediction, are you also performing a dimensionality reduction on k_x_new_x (the covariance outputs between your new x data points and your observed x data points) to match the new matrix shapes? $\endgroup$
    – Yu Chen
    Jun 23, 2018 at 22:42
  • $\begingroup$ @YuChen no need to reduce the dimensionality of k_x_new_x as they will be multiplied by the null space of inv_k_x_x (unless noise is included). I'm not exactly sure re rows and columns as it depends on how the library returns the matrices to you. My advice is reconstruct it and check it out! $\endgroup$
    – j__
    Jun 24, 2018 at 16:35

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