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I have a time series, which I would want to model using Sarima + regression. However, I have a binary variable which clearly controls the level of the time series (for the dates when it is set to 1, the time series level is 20%-100% higher). I read this explanation by R. Hyndman:

https://www.otexts.org/fpp/9/1

and it says:

"An important consideration in estimating a regression with ARMA errors is that all variables in the model must first be stationary. So we first have to check that ytyt and all the predictors (x1,t,…,xk,t)(x1,t,…,xk,t) appear to be stationary...

So we first difference the non-stationary variables in the model. It is often desirable to maintain the form of the relationship between ytyt and the predictors, and consequently it is common to difference all variables if any of them need differencing.".

This confused me a little (completely). Do we take the difference of binary variables too? If we had a series of predictors 000111000 it will become 000100-100 that does not look like something I would want to regress on at all.

In addition to the above, is it actually possible to simply fit a regression model to the data, compute the errors, and then fit the usual ARIMA to these errors? I think i saw some answer here on modelling with exogenous variables, but cannot find it anymore.

The exogenous variable is set to 1 for periods indicated as peaks in time series in the pic (between 5-6, and 14-15):

enter image description here

This data is as follows (2 columns):

population: 21 21 8 9 16 35 14 4 8 7 7 17 28 8 9 13 7 6 14 34 20 11 18 12 10 14 18 18 18 18 20 19 18 33 2 62 34 32 22 38 66 20 23 30 17 26 25 18 17 28 21 25 20 21 34 19 14 23 14 19 19 32 16 26 17 10 22 37 32 15 26 14 13 17 21 29 15 22 19 16 22 27 26 19 12 14 17 14 21 25 25 19 18 39 32 35 50 0 16 23 16 26 20 26 13 17 21 14 20 23 38 12 30 20 11 13 19 34 21 20 21 25 22 31 25 19 13 13 8 10 19 19 11 15 12 6 17 16 17 14 10 11 13 13 5 18 9 4 11 8 7 17 18 12 16 19 21 12 17 15 5 9 5 11 16 17 21 2 4 0 1 6 20 10 6 6 25 10 13 17 18 16 6 4 13 11 9 14 6 0 0 0 8 23 27 13 21 10 11 9 8 8 2 11 4 6 13 18 19 13 7 6 8 13 4 0 3 20 8 11 7 17 5 7 16 15 11 10 8 8 3 13 19 15 10 19 31 11 32 26 2 11 17 21 16 10 4 7 20 18 21 15 11 19 9 16 28 19 15 19 14 17 10 15 19 7 18 11 12 17 15 27 15 29 8 16 10 11 17 7 5 10 10 37 25 21 18 31 23 11 4 9 25 13 9 14 11 8 24 36 25 22 14 25 6 21 37 12 12 13 10 11 17 27 16 11 19 21 13 15 28 8 17 19 16 7 17 24 11 17 12 13 13 21 26 11 10 12 19 16 13 29 6 13 15 7 13 5 18 7

ad: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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  • $\begingroup$ why don't you post your data ( all of the series) $\endgroup$ – IrishStat Jun 30 '18 at 20:48
  • $\begingroup$ @IrishStat, this is all of it above ^ , or you mean raw numbers? $\endgroup$ – SWIM S. Jun 30 '18 at 21:15
  • $\begingroup$ raw numbers ....... $\endgroup$ – IrishStat Jun 30 '18 at 23:07
  • $\begingroup$ @IrishStat, updated. $\endgroup$ – SWIM S. Jun 30 '18 at 23:39
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I took your 350 observations into AUTOBOX piece of software specifically designed for time series analysis . After incorporating the deterministic input series AD the following acf was computed enter image description here

A (1,0,0)(1,0,0) 7 arima model was identified along with a level shift DOWN at period 127 and a number of pulses . Shown here enter image description here and here enter image description herewith the following stats enter image description here with Actual,Fit and Forecast here enter image description here . Look closely at the L at period 127 and Actual/Forecast here enter image description here

The Cleansed series is here enter image description here with model residual plot here enter image description here with acf here enter image description here

The residuals from the model are here with acf here enter image description here

Your 330 values are indeed non-stationary BUT there is more than 1 remedy for non-stationarity. Your series has a deterministic level shift at period 127 .

Some software doesn't examine the need for level shifts , seasonal pulses or local time trends and instead often incorrectly suggests an incorrect differencing as the remedy because that is their only option.

To answer your question there is no need for any differencing as the non-stationarity is remedied/accounted for by the shift in the mean at period 127.

If differencing is needed and you are using a regression approach then one needs to individually select and use the required order of difference for each input series .

The citation you quoted is only valid if there is differencing is needed . Transfer Function software can use common differencing when appropriate or not.

See my answer to How to use Dynamic Regression models in R to forecast future sales for a broader discussion of Transfer Functions

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