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I'm trying to classify/cluster subjects according to 4 features in two classes: healthy and sick.

Two things to know: I know the labels/classes of each subject + I only have 40 subjects (in total: training + testing set!)

What should I choose in this case, clustering or classification?

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  • $\begingroup$ Classification, it's clearly a supervised problem. If sample size is an issue, consider doing statistical tests on the full data set (e.g. with logistic regression) rather than using a training and test set. $\endgroup$ – Denziloe Aug 21 '18 at 20:24
  • $\begingroup$ I'm not really familiar with logistic regression, can you elaborate a little more please? $\endgroup$ – learneRS Aug 21 '18 at 20:58
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    $\begingroup$ I can't go into much detail, that's for you to research. But in a nutshell, logistic regression will try to model the probability of health/sickness via a linear sum of your 4 features. Because it's a statistical model, instead of gauging accuracy with a test set, you could instead do hypothesis tests or get confidence intervals for the coefficients in the linear sum using statistical software. In Python for instance you can use this: statsmodels.org/dev/generated/… $\endgroup$ – Denziloe Aug 21 '18 at 21:02
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If you have labels, it's classification.

Clustering would be unsupervised. You can't ask it to classify into healthy and sick, it may find a very different partitioning of your data of that provides more structure.

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