# Rejection Region for Likelihood Ratio Test

I have $$((Y_1,x_1),(Y_2,x_2),\ldots,(Y_n,x_n))$$ where $$Y_i$$ is distributed as $$N(\theta x_i,1)$$. I want to find the rejection region $$[0, c]$$ associated with $$\lambda$$ for a test with significance level $$\alpha$$. $$\lambda$$ is the log likelihood ratio for the test: $$H_0: \theta=\theta_0$$ or $$H_1: \theta\neq\theta_0$$. I have determined this to be $$-2\log \left(\frac{\exp (-\frac{1}{2}(\hat\theta-\theta_0)^2\sum x_i^2)}{\exp (-\frac{1}{2}(\hat\theta-\hat\theta)^2\sum x_i^2)}\right) = -2\log \left(\exp \left(-\frac{1}{2}(\hat\theta-\theta_0)^2\sum x_i^2\right)\right),$$ which simplifies to $$(\hat\theta-\theta_0)^2\sum x_i^2$$. In this equation, $$\hat\theta$$ denotes the maximum likelihood estimator, which I have determined to be $$\sum Y_ix_i/\sum x_i^2$$. My question is: How do I find the rejection region for this test? I know that I need to find $$\Pr((\hat\theta-\theta_0)^2\sum x_i^2 and solve this for $$c$$. The problem is that the expression does not follow a distribution, as far as I'm aware. How do I then determine the rejection region? Thanks in advance.

• The expression $(\hat\theta-\theta_0)^2\sum x_i^2$ is a function of only $Y$'s and constants. [Further, keep in mind that you're dealing with the case where $H_0$ is true here, so you know the distribution of the $Y$'s] Commented Oct 16, 2018 at 4:01
• Yes, but since this leads to $Pr(\sum Y_i x_i <(\sqrt{(c/\sum x_i^2}) + \theta_0)\sum x_i^2$, do I know the distribution of that? I cannot seem to find it. Whatever I try, I can't find a way to express it as $Pr(\sum Y_i < k^*)$. Either way, thanks for your help, I made progress at least. Commented Oct 16, 2018 at 6:03
• You may want to see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilks%27_theorem Commented Oct 16, 2018 at 8:00
• @user569579 You have a linear combination of (presumably independent) Gaussians on the left. You can compute the distribution of $\sum Y_ix_i$ immediately. The stuff on the right is just some other constant, $c^\prime$. Commented Oct 16, 2018 at 23:02

If I simply take the likelihood ratio $$\Lambda$$ for testing $$H_0$$ versus $$H_1$$, I get

\begin{align} \Lambda(y_1,\ldots,y_n)&=\frac{\exp\left[-\frac{1}{2}\sum (y_i-\theta_0 x_i)^2\right]}{\exp\left[-\frac{1}{2}\sum (y_i-\hat\theta x_i)^2\right]} \\&=\exp\left[-\frac{1}{2}\left\{\theta_0\sum x_i^2-2\theta_0\sum x_iy_i-\hat\theta^2\sum x_i^2+2\hat\theta \sum x_iy_i\right\}\right] \\&=\exp\left[-\frac{1}{2}(\theta_0-\hat\theta)\left\{(\theta_0+\hat\theta)\sum x_i^2-2\sum x_iy_i\right\}\right] \end{align}

Putting the value of $$\hat\theta$$, I finally get

$$\Lambda(y_1,\ldots,y_n)=\exp\left[-\frac{1}{2\sum x_i^2}\left(\theta_0\sum x_i^2-\sum x_i y_i\right)^2\right]$$

So, for some positive $$k$$,

$$\Lambda(y_1,\ldots,y_n)k$$

Keeping in mind the level restriction, we need to find $$k$$ so that

$$P_{H_0}\left[\left|\theta_0\sum x_i^2-\sum x_i Y_i\right|>k\right]=\alpha$$

Or, $$P_{H_0}\left[\theta_0\sum x_i^2-\sum x_i Y_i>k\right]+P_{H_0}\left[\theta_0\sum x_i^2-\sum x_i Y_i<-k\right]=\alpha$$

I think all you need to note now is that for $$i=1,2,\ldots,n$$,

\begin{align} Y_i\stackrel{\text{ind}}{\sim}\mathcal N(\theta x_i,1)&\implies x_iY_i\stackrel{\text{ind}}{\sim}\mathcal N(\theta x_i^2,x_i^2) \\&\implies \sum_{i=1}^n x_i Y_i\stackrel{H_0}{\sim}\mathcal N\left(\theta_0\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2,\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2\right) \end{align}