I'll first give an example and afterwards a more formal definition of my problem.


Let's assume I'm looking at balls with two properties: their color can be black or white, their weight heavy or light.

If I have a collection of n balls and I know the frequency of each property (say 50% black balls, 50% heavy balls), I can easily calculate the expected frequency of both events at the same time assuming the events are independent (here: 25% black and heavy balls).

Then I can simply count to evaluate the observed frequency of balls with both properties (black and heavy) and compare it to the expected frequency.

Now assume I have m such collections. They all have different, but known base frequencies of the individual properties. Thus, I can calculate for each collection the expected frequency of double events and compare to the observed frequency of actual.

If color and weight of a ball were truly independent, I would expect observed frequencies scattering around expected frequencies in both directions. However, what I see in my data (m = 45) is that observed frequencies are always lower than expected frequencies.

Formal Definition:

I have a sample $S$ with two binary features $A$ and $B$. I know the base frequencies for both features $p_S(A)$ and $p_S(B)$. Assuming independent features $A$ and $B$, the frequency of both features occurring at the same time would be $p_S(AB) = p_S(A)*p_S(B)$. Then I can compare this expected frequency to the actually observed frequency $\hat{p_S}(AB)$ in sample $S$.

In a set of $m$ samples $S_1, ..., S_m$ with varying $p_{S_i}(A)$ and $p_{S_i}(B)$, I find that $p_{S_i}(AB) > \hat{p_{S_i}}(AB)$ for all $i$.

How can I test if this is a significant deviation from the expected independence of $A$ and $B$?

  • $\begingroup$ Given $m$= 45, do you want to test $p_S(AB) = p_S(A)*p_S(B)$ 45 times (one by one), or test 45 null hypothesis simultaneously (one test)? $\endgroup$
    – user158565
    Oct 29, 2018 at 18:15
  • $\begingroup$ I'm looking for a single test. In any individual case, $p_S(AB)$ is only slightly lower than $p_S(A)*p_S(B)$. I would not expect significant differences for individual cases. The remarkable thing is that all 45 samples are deviating in the same direction: $p_{S_i}(AB) > \hat{p_{S_i}}(AB)$. To me, this does not at all look like random deviations. $\endgroup$
    – Andreas
    Oct 30, 2018 at 7:57
  • $\begingroup$ Suppose you have different P(A) and P(B) from different collection. Calculate the expected number of AB under the assumption of A and B are independent, E = NP(A)P(B) for each collection. Calculate X=(E-O)*(E-O)/E for each collection, where O is the number of AB observed in the collection. Add all X together, compare with Chi Square distribution with m degree of freedom to get your p value. $\endgroup$
    – user158565
    Oct 30, 2018 at 15:01
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for your help. I went a bit deeper into the theory behind the Chi Square test and now this makes a lot of sense. If you want to make this an answer instead of a comment, I will flag it as the accepted answer. $\endgroup$
    – Andreas
    Nov 21, 2018 at 12:22

1 Answer 1


Suppose you have different $\Pr(A)$ and $\Pr(B)$ from different collection. Calculate the expected number of $A\cap B$ under the assumption of $A$ and $B$ are independent, $E = N\Pr(A)\Pr(B)$ for each collection, where $N$ is total number of events. Calculate $X=(E-O)^2/E$ for each collection, where $O$ is the number of $A\cap B$ observed in the collection. $\sum_X$ follows Chi-Square distribution with $m$ degree of freedom under the null hypothesis that $A$ and $B$ are independent, where $m$ is the number of $X$s. Comparing $\sum_X$ with Chi Square distribution with $m$ degree of freedom to get your $p$ value. If $p$ value is small, then the null hypothesis of independent will be rejected and $A$ and $B$ are related will be accepted.


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