Multivariate form of Pearson Correlation?

Suppose I have the following dataset below:

With my understanding of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, I could get a coefficient for Percentage Use vs. Average Age between timepoints. However, is there a way to calculate an adjusted Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, one that removes gender/sex as a variable? Also calculating Pearson's Correlation Coefficient on Python/R also yields a p-value as well. What's the difference between this p-value and the p-value obtained from doing a simple ordinary least-squares linear regression?