I am using (essentially) the approach outlined in the paper "Statistical-based WCET estimation and validation" (http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2009/2291/pdf/Hansen.2291.pdf) to build a Gumbel distribution for worst-case execution times for a real-time software system.

To model the distribution I build a data set out of, say, the worst time in 32 successive executions of the benchmark I am using. I might then get 40 or 50 such data points and using some R get a figure for $\mu$ and for $\beta$ and from there can, say, get a figure for the limit for $10^{-5}$ or $10^{-6}$ cases.

The question is, though, is this (in some say) a measure of the worst $\frac{1}{100000}$ or $\frac{1}{1000000}$ of what are already the worst cases or a statement about the expected value of one-in-a-million (or so on) of all cases?


1 Answer 1


You are estimating a lower bound on how bad the worst $10^{-6}$ of data points would be. "Data points" being what you fed in: in your case, the worst of 40-50 execution times.

For what it's worth, I don't find the reason given in the paper for taking the worst times in each block and modeling those as compelling in the least. If a standard model fits well to the raw data, I would calculate the estimated upper percentiles based on that model (just use the raw data). The insistence on the Gumbel distribution is begs the question: if the raw data would be better modeled using a different distribution, then why not use that? There is no guarantee that the maximum of 50 i.i.d. random variables follows a Gumbel distribution.

A warning: This kind of estimation is a kind of extrapolation. Making decisions from these sorts of calculation is risky because a model that fits well to limited data may not fit well in the tails of the distribution.

  • $\begingroup$ Isn't the chi-squared test contained in the paper a test of whether the values follow a Gumbel distribution? $\endgroup$ Dec 30, 2018 at 18:09
  • $\begingroup$ A significant p-value would make it likely that there is a lack of fit with the Gumbel, but the sensitivity of the test may not be great. $\endgroup$
    – HStamper
    Dec 31, 2018 at 21:08

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