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I am building a multi class classification model using SVM to predict the grade for essays. What can I do to improve the result especially for class 1 and class 3? Their precision and recall are really bad.

Things I have done:
1. Split train:test set to 70:30
2. Oversample the training set using smote
3. Scale the feature by using StandardScaler from Scikit-Learn
4. Perform parameter tuning by using GridSearchCv from Scikit-Learn to get the best parameter

SVM result

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First, I think your workflow makes sense but you have a problem: the number of observations is so different in all three classes. When you do your cross-validation completely random you naturally oversample the most prevalent class. Therefore you optimize the model to classify these observations correct. Intuitively, if you correctly classify a lot of the obs from class 2 your clf will achieve a decent performance. The ‚low‘ number of observations from 1 and 3 are just a ‚nice to have‘ if you classify them correctly.

One way out is sampling a similar number observations for each class or assigning weights to the classes. Lastly, in the multi-class case remember, that you are not really training a classifier for class 1, 2 or 3 with an SVM. It's either one-vs-all or all-vs-all, both options are also available in sklearn.

This is the first thing I would try and then move maybe also to other classifiers.

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