# Drawing 95% ellipse over scatter plot

The context is regression analysis using Eviews, but first I wanted to create a few scatter plots and overlay error ellipses on them. Eviews doesn't support that kind of graph ornamentation so I am going with javascript to draw the ellipse and make a front-end graph of sorts. Here is the scatter plot I am working with:

Here is a list of (hopefully) all relevant descriptive stats that I was able to scrape from Eviews:

• $$n = 321$$
• $$\mu_{x} = 7.60$$
• $$\mu_{y} = 11.38$$
• $$\sigma_{x} = .34$$
• $$\sigma_{x} = .44$$

covariance matrix = [.12, .10]

                 [.10, .19]

• ordered eigenvalues = 1.66, 0.34

(apologies for crudeness, couldn't get latex for parts of the list)

I have noted all this information and now attempted to plug in some values to my javascript implementation:

svg.append('ellipse')
.attr('cx', _______)
.attr('cy', _______)
.attr('rx', _______)
.attr('ry', _______)

• The cx attribute defines the x coordinate of the center of the ellipse
• The cy attribute defines the y coordinate of the center of the ellipse
• The rx attribute defines the horizontal radius
• The ry attribute defines the vertical radius

## My attempt

I set cx and cy equal to their corresponding means.

Next I looked up the corresponding chi-sq value for 1-.95 = .05 for 2 degrees of freedom: 5.991

From here, I went about calculating the horizontal radius, rx, which to my knowledge, should be: $$2\sqrt{5.991*1.66}$$ where 1.66 is my eigenvalue. I multiplied this value by the mean to translate it to the right domain.

Then I repeated this step for ry $$2\sqrt{5.991*0.34}$$ where 0.34 is my other eigenvalue.

Lastly I applied a transformation to orient the ellipse off of its axis-alignment and onto the proper eigenvector: $$\alpha = arctan(v_{1}(y)/v_{2}(x))$$

While the orientation seemed correct the ellipse seems to be scaled incorrectly for 95%. It far too small, suggesting samples drawn from the underlying distribution couldn't be accommodated by such an ellipse.

I tried using: http://www.visiondummy.com/2014/04/draw-error-ellipse-representing-covariance-matrix/ as a guide.

## Question

Is my approach conceptually flawed? I personally can't find issue with it, as it's close to the example. However, I know that it must be flawed somewhere or I would get a reasonable ellipse in the output. In hindsight, I noticed I didn't divide by 2 in when setting the horizontal radius (I was essentially calculating the horizontal diameter), so if anything the ellipse should have been too big. Now, I'm more confused than ever.

Note: I concede that many here in the stats community don't use javascript as much as matplot, r or python, and depending on the language the syntax can vary greatly, that's why I included a description of the arguments.

In the simple case where $$x$$ and $$y$$ are uncorrelated standard normals, their joint distribution is $$p(x,y)=\frac{1}{2\pi}\exp\left(\frac{-x^2-y^2}2\right)$$ So the ellipse that bounds $$q$$ of the distribution will be the solution to $$q=\int_{r=0}^R\int_{\theta=0}^{2\pi} \frac{1}{2\pi}\exp\left(\frac{-r^2}2\right)r\ dr\ d\theta=1-\exp\left(\frac{-R^2}2\right)$$ which is $$R^2=-2\ln(1-q)$$, or $$y=\pm\sqrt{-2\ln(1-q)-x^2}$$.
For a general binormal distribution, we change coordinates, and the formula will be $$z_y = \rho z_x\pm \sqrt{1-\rho^2}\sqrt{2\ln(\frac{1}{1-q})-z_x^2}$$ where $$z_y = (y-\mu_y)/\sigma_y$$ and $$z_x = (x-\mu_x)/\sigma_x$$. For the values in the question, that produces
• Thanks for taking the time to explain this to me. As my theory is rather weak, I must admit I'm a bit frightened by all the big equations, but I'm trying to take it one step at a time. I think I can work my way through it in time. What's holding me up now is rho. what is $/rho$ in your equation representing? – Arash Howaida Feb 16 at 9:19
• $\rho$ = correlation = .10 / (.34*.44) – Matt F. Feb 16 at 19:15
• Sorry for the delay, I think I'm almost getting it, just one thing I can't figure out. What is q here? usually we think of q as the sample elements that don't have attributes right? Or is this a different q? Either way, I'm confused on how to use the known descriptive stats of this data set to find q. Sorry for making for the undue ineptness and delay. – Arash Howaida Mar 13 at 11:31