The BERT Paper


Section 4.2 covers the SQuAD training.

So from my understanding, there are two extra parameters trained, they are two vectors with the same dimension as the hidden size, so the same dimensions as the contextualized embeddings in BERT. They are S (for start) and E (for End).

For each, a softmax is taken with S and each of the final contextualized embeddings to get a score for the correct Start position. And the same thing is done for E and the correct end position.

I get up to this part. But I am having trouble figuring out how the did the labeling and final loss calculations, which is described in this paragraph

"and the maximum scoring span is used as the prediction. The training objective is the loglikelihood of the correct start and end positions."

What do they mean by "maximum scoring span is used as the prediction"?

Furthermore, how does that play into "The training objective is the loglikelihood of the correct start and end positions"?

From this Source:


It says the log-likelihood is only applied to the correct classes. So the we are only calculating the softmax for the correct positions only, Not any of the in correct positions.

If this interpretation is correct, then the loss will be

Loss = -Log( Softmax(S*T(predictedStart) / Sum(S*Ti) ) -Log( Softmax(E*T(predictedEnd) / Sum(S*Ti) )

You are right about the loss, you can verify the details with BERT source code here https://github.com/google-research/bert/blob/master/run_squad.py#L646-L652

I guess "maximum scoring span is used as the prediction" means since it formulates the Squad task as a sequence labeling task, when doing prediction, the words in the most probable span are used as the predicted answer. There are also other ways to solve Squad, for example by a sequence generation model, Long-Term Memory Networks for Question Answering.


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