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I have counted the number of occurrences of protein domains in the proteomes of 16 different insect species, 1 focal vs 15 reference species. For each of the ~4700 protein domains in my data, I have a set of counts like below representing how many times the domain appeared in each species.

focal_count <- 6
ref_counts <- c(6, 14, 7, 8, 7, 11, 16, 6, 4, 6, 3, 5, 6, 8, 6)

For each domain I would like to compare the focal count to the reference counts to determine if the focal count is significantly different from the rest of the counts, i.e. is the focal count an outlier or "weird".

I believe I cannot use a glm based on a poisson distribution because I have a single data point for my focal species, nor can I use a chi square test because I do not have a contingency table. Is there some way I can reliably test, for each domain, whether the focal count is significantly different from the counts of the rest of the species.

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