# Computation of LDA in Elements of Statistical Learning 4.3.2

Elements of Statistical Learning 4.3.2 elaborates on computation for Linear Discriminant Analysis. https://web.stanford.edu/~hastie/Papers/ESLII.pdf

Procedure is said to be

• Sphere the data with respect to the common covariance estimate $$\hat{Σ}: X∗ ← D^{−1/2}U^{T}X$$, where $$\hat{Σ} = UD U^{T}$$. The common covariance estimate of $$X^{∗}$$ will now be the identity.

• Classify to the closest class centroid in the transformed space, modulo the effect of the class prior probabilities $$π_{k}$$.

How is the procedure above derived from the expression of the discriminant functions which writes in the case of identical covariance matrices for all $$k$$ :

$$\delta_{k}(x)=x^{T}\Sigma^{-1}\mu_{k}-\frac{1}{2}\mu_{k}^{T}\Sigma^{-1}\mu_{k}+\log{\mu_{k}}$$

• +1 good on you answering your own question and sharing it! :) Apr 28, 2019 at 21:10

Sphering ( or whitening ) the data ($$X$$) means applying a transformation so that in the new basis, the covariance for sphered data ($$X^{*}$$) is the identity matrix, i.e. $$E[X^{*T}X^{*}]=I_{n}$$ .

We operate this transformation to obtain significantly simpler computation. As mentioned in 4.3.2 the ingredients of $$\delta_{k}(x)$$ are

$$(x − \hat{\mu_{k}})^{T}\hat{\Sigma}_{k}^{-1}(x − \hat{\mu_{k}}) = [U^{T}_{k} (x − \hat{\mu_{k}})]^{T}D_{k}^{-1}[U^{T}_{k} (x − \hat{\mu_{k}})]$$

$$\log{|\hat{\Sigma}_{k}|}=\sum_{l}\log{d_{kl}}$$

where $$\hat{\Sigma}_{k}=U_{k}D_{k}U_{k}^{T}$$ is the eigen-decomposition for each $$\hat{\Sigma}_{k}$$, $$U_{k}$$ is $$p \times p$$ orthonomal and $$D_{k}$$ a diagonal matrix of positive eigenvalues $$d_{kl}$$.

Let's write the sphering of the data :

$$[U^{T}_{k} (x − \hat{\mu_{k}})]^{T}D_{k}^{-1}[U^{T}_{k} (x − \hat{\mu_{k}})]$$

$$=(U^{T}_{k}x)^{T}D_{k}^{-1/2}D_{k}^{-1/2}U^{T}_{k}x + (U^{T}_{k}\hat{\mu}_{k})^{T}D_{k}^{-1/2}D_{k}^{-1/2}U^{T}_{k}\hat{\mu}_{k}-(U^{T}_{k}\hat{\mu}_{k})^{T}D_{k}^{-1/2}D_{k}^{-1/2}U^{T}_{k}x-(U^{T}_{k}x)^{T}D_{k}^{-1/2}D_{k}^{-1/2}U^{T}_{k}\hat{\mu}_{k}$$

We operate the suggested change of variables, $$X^{*}\leftarrow D^{-1/2}U^{T}X$$ and similarly $$\hat{\mu}_{k}^{*}\leftarrow D^{-1/2}U^{T}\hat{\mu}_{k}$$. The previous calculation transforms into

$$(x^{*}-\hat{\mu}_{k}^{*})^{T}(x^{*}-\hat{\mu}_{k}^{*})=\|x^{*}-\hat{\mu}_{k}^{*}\|^{2}$$

Minimizing the discriminant needs to minimize this quantity, that is to say finding the class $$k$$ minimizing the distance between data and the centroid of class $$k$$ in the new base.

The last term in $$\delta_{k}(x)$$ is $$\log{\mu_{k}}$$ hence the mention on the influence of prior probability $$\mu_{k}$$.

• Therefore, would the final expression be: δk(x) = ∥x∗−μ^∗k∥2 + logμk ? Feb 2, 2021 at 6:21