The bild package appears to be an excellent package for serial binary responses. But it is for discrete time. I would like to specify a smooth function of time for the odds ratio connection of the current response Y with binary responses measured at earlier times, or at least a first-order Markov version of this. I believe this is called alternating logistic regression. Does anyone know of an R package that handles continuous time, i.e., measurement times can be at any follow-up time? I don't need random effects in the model.

  • $\begingroup$ I haven't used it, but for alternating logistic regression, a quick search turned up this ALR package: hsph.harvard.edu/carey/vcwww_4.html $\endgroup$
    – pat
    Oct 22, 2012 at 6:06
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for this comment. The best I can tell from the documentation, alr is only for discrete time. $\endgroup$ Oct 22, 2012 at 13:28

2 Answers 2


The R package orth may be of some help. Here's a vignette. See also the manual.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to the site, @user22299. Would you mind expanding on this w/ a few sentences to say what the package can do, & why you think it might be the answer? $\endgroup$ Mar 21, 2013 at 12:58
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    $\begingroup$ The authors programmed the combinatoric calculations by generating a combinatoric dataset, making it not computationally efficient enough for large $N$. They perhaps did that to make it work in SAS IML. In addition, I can't tell if their method has the properties of a full likelihood approach, i.e., whether it is robust to non-random dropout as generalized least squares and mixed effects models are. Their method is akin to the non-full-likelihood alternating logistic regression (ALR), implying you have to use multiple imputation on top of ALR to make the missing values missing at random. $\endgroup$ Mar 24, 2013 at 19:51
  • $\begingroup$ In 2013, orth was removed from the CRAN repository. $\endgroup$ Nov 21, 2022 at 21:03

There is the package bild, which stands for "binary longitudinal data analysis." It may help you.

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to the site, @Jung Woo June. I didn't downvote you, but would you mind expanding on this w/ a few sentences to say what the package can do, & why you think it might be the answer? The sparseness of this answer may have been the reason behind the downvote. $\endgroup$ Nov 28, 2014 at 18:51
  • $\begingroup$ I think that bild only handles the discrete time case. $\endgroup$ Nov 29, 2014 at 12:59

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