If one knows the correlation coefficient for two variables, and also the number of observations, but does not have access to the raw data, how does one calculate a p-value?
[EDIT:] Please understand that I am asking about how this is done. Not requesting the name of a software function that would do it for me, as some have assumed. An ideal answer to this question would be a procedure that one could theoretically follow, using a pen and paper if necessary, to get from a correlation coefficient and a number of observations to an accurate p-value (regardless of how long that procedure would actually take if carried out with pen-and-paper). [EDIT ENDS]
The following answer explains how to calculate the t score for a correlation, but relies on an Excel function called
tdist to derive a p-value from that t score (which is unhelpful if one does not happen to be using Excel):