A very beginner level question here: I'm trying to see whether there is a difference in how students assess the usefulness of 5 possible courses to be added to their curriculum. Each student was asked to rate the perceived usefulness of each course.

Would the fact that I have the same sample (respondents) in each group mean I have matched groups and am therefore supposed to use paired samples measures such as one-way repeated measures ANOVA (or much rather the Friedman test because my variables are ordinal?). Or are the groups considered independent because I am not expecting a "treatment" effect, like when comparing before-treatment assessment and after-treatment assessment, and I therefore need to use regular one-way ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis?

Thank you!


1 Answer 1


The assessments of various courses by the same student are quite certainly dependent, so no, independence is not a valid assumption here.


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