# Sampling inclusion probability for multiple items

Suppose we sample (uniformly, with replacement) $$t$$ times a set of $$N$$ items. What is the probability $$x$$ that the sample contains $$y$$ different items?

This is representative of a real-life scenario I am facing, trying to determine if a certain issue impacts the whole population, or is specific to a certain subset. For example, I have a population of 73 specimens ($$N$$). One issue has manifested 250 times ($$t_1$$) on 47 different specimens ($$y_1$$), while another has manifested 64 times ($$t_2$$) on 17 different specimens ($$y_2$$). Intuitively, issue 2 is much more likely to be specific to a subset of the specimens, but I would like to quantify this before trying to analyse further.

One way forward I struggled with for a while was to use the inclusion probability. There are formulas for including one item $$x_k$$ or two items $$x_{kl}$$ (below), but I couldn't generalize for $$y$$ items.

$$x_k = (1-\frac{1}{N})^t$$ $$x_{kl} = 2(1-\frac{1}{N})^t - (1-\frac{2}{N})^t$$

I also have a little simulation to get some taste of what the distribution would look like.

Any help or direction would be appreciated!

This is an example of the classical occupancy problem. Let $$1 \leqslant K \leqslant \min(t,N)$$ denote the number of different items sampled. Then the probability mass function for this random variable is the classical occupancy distribution:
$$\mathbb{P}(K=k) = \frac{(N)_k \cdot S(t,k)}{N^t} \quad \quad \quad \text{for all } 1 \leqslant k \leqslant \min(t,N),$$
where $$(N)_k = N(N-1)(N-2) \cdots (N-k+1)$$ are the falling factorials and $$S(t,k)$$ are the Stirling numbers of the second kind. Letting $$E_r \equiv (1-r/N)^t$$, the mean and variance of the distribution are:
$$\mathbb{E}(K) = N (1-E_1) \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \mathbb{V}(K) = N [(N-1) E_2 + E_1 - N \cdot E_1^2].$$
The higher-order moments and other broader properties of this distribution are well-known (see e.g., O'Neill 2019). For large values of $$t$$ and $$N$$ you can approximate it well by a normal distribution with identical mean and variance, with approximation accuracy shown in the cited paper.