Matrix representation of PCA

In both Wikipedia and this medium post, I see the succinct principle components decomposition of X represented as

$$T=XW$$

However, it seems to me that it should be $$T = WX$$ instead, if according to the Wikipedia page that columns of $$W$$ are the eigenvectors of $$X^TX$$ and $$X$$ is arranged as row vectors for each observation. In short, $$X \in \mathbb{R}^{nxk}$$, where $$n$$ is the number of observations and $$k$$ is the dimension of each data point, and $$W \in \mathbb{R}^{nxn}$$, so $$XW$$ does not even exist.

Am I getting the derivation somewhere wrong?

• It depends on the orientation of you data matrix – ReneBt Aug 6 at 11:27

Since the data samples have dimension $$k$$, the scatter matrix, $$X^TX$$ will be of dimension $$k\times k$$ leading to $$k$$ dimensional eigenvectors. So, $$W$$ is of dimension $$k\times k$$. With this correction, $$T=XW$$ indeed exists. You can also think of it as $$T=\underbrace{\begin{bmatrix}x_1^T\\x_2^T\\\vdots\\x_n^T\end{bmatrix}}_{X^T}\underbrace{\begin{bmatrix}w_1&\cdots&w_k\end{bmatrix}}_{W}=\begin{bmatrix}x_1^Tw_1&\cdots &x_1^Tw_k\\\vdots&\ddots&\vdots\\x_n^Tw_1&\cdots&x_n^Tw_k\end{bmatrix}$$ where $$i$$-th row of $$T$$ represents the projection of $$i$$-th data sample to the first $$k$$ (whatever it is) PCs.
• Thanks! But could it be that the $x_1$ and $x_k$ in your answer are actually $w_1$ and $w_k$? – kumom Aug 6 at 12:31