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I would like to fit data based on Cox proportional-hazards model and then simulate new data based on a fitted model. For instance, provided that the fit is

# Create the simplest test data set 
test1 <- list(time=c(4,3,1,1,2,2,3), 
               status=c(1,1,1,0,1,1,0), 
               x=c(0,2,1,1,1,0,0)) 
# Fit a survival model 
mod_cox <- coxph(Surv(time, status) ~ x,data=test1)

how would I made simulations based on the fitted mod_cox model using x as covariates?

Additionally, I would also like to make additional simulations assuming a Cox model with a hazard rate equal to a constant (say $K$) times the hazard rate of the mod_cox fitted Cox model.

I am interested in simulating censoring times because I want to perform a power analysis and I need censoring times to replicate survival analyses several times.

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    $\begingroup$ Please say more about what you mean by "simulation." predict.coxph provides hazard ratios for new sets of covariate values. The survfit.coxph function is among the approaches to estimating whole survival curves discussed on this page (the baseline hazard, however, would be that found empirically in your data set, unlike more general survival curves from parametric models). Or is there there some other type of simulation that you have in mind? $\endgroup$ – EdM Oct 11 '19 at 18:11
  • $\begingroup$ By simulation, I mean stochastic simulation of survival times conditional on the censoring (vector of 0 and 1) of the data. $\endgroup$ – Michael Blum Oct 11 '19 at 18:23
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    $\begingroup$ For survival time simulations like you propose you might be better served by a parametric model; see my answer here for some links to ideas. It's not clear exactly what you mean by "conditional on the censoring of the data," though. Are you trying to model censoring too? Please add details about that to your question with an example of what you wish to accomplish, as it's possible for comments to get lost and it's easier for those coming to this page to see those details in the question itself. $\endgroup$ – EdM Oct 11 '19 at 18:54
  • $\begingroup$ I am looking for a function that takes as argument the model mod_cox, the censoring status status, and the covariates x and that simulates censored survival times. $\endgroup$ – Michael Blum Oct 11 '19 at 19:21
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    $\begingroup$ A Cox regression does not model censoring times, only event times. After their corresponding censoring times, censored cases are simply ignored in constructing sets of those at risk for doing the survival analysis. One might model censoring and events as competing risks, but such a model is a good deal different from what's in your question. $\endgroup$ – EdM Oct 11 '19 at 19:28
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For power analysis of a Cox model you do not need to do simulations of event or censoring times.

If the covariate x of interest were binary then there would be several ways to proceed, as typical power analysis programs for Cox models are for treatment/control comparisons that can be reasonably extended to other binary covariates. But your x seems to be multi-valued, perhaps continuous, and by the structure of your model it is assumed to be linearly related to log hazard.

For planning a future observational study based on your current data set with a non-binary covariate, you need to take into account both the hazard change per unit change in the covariate value and the distribution of the values of that covariate among your population of interest. If there are additional covariates in your model, the association of your covariate of interest with those other covariates must also be considered.

The R powerSurvEpi package provides tools to handle this type of situation. For study planning its ssizeEpiCont function is designed to work with a pilot study from which it will estimate the variance of the covariate of interest, its multiple correlation with other covariates, and the fraction of cases that had an event. Specify the significance level, hypothesize the hazard ratio (for example, based on what you found in mod_cox), and the function will calculate the number of cases needed. If you want to calculate power instead, the package's powerEpiCont function provides similar handling for calculating power based on a given a number of cases. The formulas used are shown clearly in the manual pages for those functions.

These calculations are based on a paper by Hsieh and Lavori, who reported:

Simulations show that the censored observations do not contribute to the power of the test in the proportional hazards model [for a continuous covariate], a fact that is well known for a binary covariate.

That's a critically important point about survival analysis: it's the number of events that provides the power.

You thus do not have to be concerned further about the timings or numbers of the censored cases. The values passed to the functions noted above don't even require the event times from the pilot study, just which cases had events. The total number of cases needed for a specified power is then related to number of events that is needed and the fraction of cases that had events. More complicated simulations are not required.

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