think of a group of people aged from 21 to 35 years.
Then we can show the number of persons regarding gender and age groups 21-25, 26-30 and 31-35 in (at least) two different ways:
What I am curious about is what names are used to refer to those different types of table structures?
The practical relevance is that Excel can use Type A as a source for Pivot Tables but not Type B. Often though huge tables of type B are provided for statistics and I would like to google for 'How to turn Type B tables into Type A tables?'.
Terminology (summarized from answers):
- R: 'long data format'
- '(melted) cross tab
- Excel: 'flat(tened) data table'
- R: 'wide data format'
- (traditional) cross tab
The search phrase for Excel/Pivot table would be 'how to flatten a cross table'.