In this article of van Klaveren, David, et al. "Models with interactions overestimated heterogeneity of treatment effects and were prone to treatment mistargeting." Journal of clinical epidemiology (2019), the authors mentioned:

" ‘‘risk model’’ (with a constant effect of treatment assignment)"

" ‘‘effect models’’ (including interactions of risk predictors with treatment assignment)"

without giving the mathematical formula.

I am a little confused as to the mathematical definition and the difference between these models and I would be grateful if someone could clarify this point with mathematical formulas or give me clear references and which explains these two models well.

Thank you for your help.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The link to the article is broken; it might have been specific to your own web session on the journal's site. Please provide a text reference to the article and if possible a web link to a more generally accessible version (like a PubMed citation) or a doi. $\endgroup$ – EdM Jan 2 at 15:22

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