I'm looking for two types of sources.

  1. Studies on any topic in any field that simulate fake data that are supposed to represent some null distribution to test the validity of some model.I'm just trying to gather all of the sources I can that do this. I'm especially interested in cases where it is not necessarily clear what the null distribution should look like.

  2. Syntheses of the literature that use simulations for the latter purpose in any field or in general or philosophy of science papers discussing the use of such simulations (even brief discussions of the issue in textbooks would be nice)

Basically, myself and some collegues have started using the simulation to the null hypothesis to test certain claims in linguistics. But debates are emerging concerning what the null hypothesis should look like and how to generate the fake data. So I'm looking for inspiration from other fields where I hope these discussions might be more advanced.