This situation - one where the likelihood cannot be evaluated, but can be sampled from - is a problem that ABC (Approximate Bayesian Computation) deals with. In general, attaining samples from the true posterior is likely not possible in this situation, but using various ABC techniques, we can draw samples that closely approximate the posterior.
One crude but easy to implement algorithm is just to use rejection sampling. Given your data $x$, we can define some summary statistic $T(x)$ of our data - it is more efficient for $T(x)$ to be sufficient, but this is not necessary. One choice of $T(x)$ could just be the mean of the data. Then, the algorithm is:
- Sample parameters $\beta \sim p(\beta)$
- Sample fake data conditioned on the parameters: $x^* \sim p(x^* \vert \beta)$
- Compare the summary statistic of our fake data with our real data - if they are "close enough", say within $\epsilon$ distance of each other, accept $\beta$ as a sample from our approximate posterior.
This is only one of the many ABC approaches that you could use for solving this problem.