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A data set that is linearly separable is a precondition for algorithms like the perceptron to converge. It's well-known that we can project low-dimensional data to a higher dimension using kernel methods in order to make it linearly separable:

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But is it always true that there is some transformation to convert every non-linearly separable data set into a linearly separable one? If not, what would be an example of such a data set where this is impossible?

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For a given, finite data set it should always be possible—just let each data point have its own dimension! So, maybe a more interesting question would be for a stochastic model, generating a data set, such that for $n$ realizations, linear separability would require a dimension growing linearly with $n$?

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