The data are counts of cell structures in different (independent) conditions. For N cells per condition, in which N is different for each condition and unknown, the total number of X and Y structures were counted. Here is what the data looks like (
dat Z Y control 198 198 condition1 155 257 condition2 41 101 condition3 93 107 condition4 79 111
Structures Z and Y co-occur in the same cell, and there might be more than one structure per cell.
Biological question: Are the number of Z features changed in conditions vs control (and which condition)?
Since we don't have N, or a distribution of Z counts per cells, the number of Y features could be used as "normalization" factor and the question be: are the number of Z features in relation to Y affected in the mutants (is the Z / Y ratio changed in the mutants)?
Is there any test I could use to test our hypothesis that the number of Z features is affected in the conditions?
My first instinct was to look at the chi-squared test, but (ii) these are aren't proportions and (ii) I guess we would be testing if there is an association between condition and structures (at best). I also looked at other tests, without knowing at least N per condition, or the number of structures per cell I couldn't find anything appropriate.
dput(dat) structure(list(Z = c(198L, 155L, 41L, 93L, 79L), Y = c(198L, 257L, 101L, 107L, 111L)), class = "data.frame", row.names = c("control", "condition1", "condition2", "condition3", "condition4"))