Are there any differences between multilevel modeling and hierarchical models? I once heard that hierarchical models is just one type of multilevel model.

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    $\begingroup$ Multilevel models are sometimes called hierarchical linear models. A well-known book by Raudenbush & Bryk is called Hierarchical Linear Models and they have a software product with the same name. However, sometimes people use the term hierarchical regression to refer to an OLS model in which a series of regressions are estimated to examine incremental improvement in $R^2$. data.library.virginia.edu/hierarchical-linear-regression $\endgroup$ – Erik Ruzek Jun 19 '20 at 14:49
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    $\begingroup$ Why are you asking? What is the data you are working with that prompted this question? Please edit your question with this information if relevant. $\endgroup$ – Erik Ruzek Jun 19 '20 at 14:50
  • $\begingroup$ I agree with @ErikRuzek and would also add that there are also Bayesian hierarchical models, which, going by the tags in the question might be something you had in mind. Please edit the question with further info. $\endgroup$ – Robert Long Jun 27 '20 at 18:02

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