Please consider this data:

dt.m <- structure(list(id = c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12), occasion = structure(c(1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L, 2L), .Label = c("g1", "g2"), class = "factor"),     g = c(12, 8, 22, 10, 10, 6, 8, 4, 14, 6, 2, 22, 12, 7, 24, 14, 8, 4, 5, 6, 14, 5, 5, 16)), .Names = c("id", "occasion", "g"), row.names = c(NA, -24L), class = "data.frame")

We fit a simple variance components model. In R we have:

fit.vc <- lmer( g ~ (1|id), data=dt.m )

Then we produce a caterpillar plot:

rr1 <- ranef(fit.vc, postVar = TRUE)
dotplot(rr1, scales = list(x = list(relation = 'free')))[["id"]]

Caterpillar plot from R

Now we fit the same model in Stata. First write to Stata format from R:

write.dta(dt.m, "dt.m.dta")

In Stata

use "dt.m.dta"
xtmixed g || id:, reml variance

The output agrees with the R output (neither shown), and we attempt to produce the same caterpillar plot:

predict u_plus_e, residuals
predict u, reffects
gen e = u_plus_e – u
predict u_se, reses

egen tag = tag(id)
sort u
gen u_rank = sum(tag)

serrbar u u_se u_rank if tag==1, scale(1.96) yline(0)

enter image description here

Clearty Stata is using a different standard error to R. In fact Stata is using 2.13 whereas R is using 1.32.

From what I can tell, the 1.32 in R is coming from

> sqrt(attr(ranef(fit.vc, postVar = TRUE)[[1]], "postVar")[1, , ])
 [1] 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977 1.319977

though I can't say I really understand what this is doing. Can someone explain ?

And I have no idea where the 2.13 from Stata is coming from, except that, if I change the estimation method to maximum likelihood:

xtmixed g || id:, ml variance

....then it seems to use 1.32 as the standard error and produce the same results as R....

enter image description here

.... but then the estimate for the random effect variance no longer agrees with R (35.04 vs 31.97).

So it seems to have something to do with ML vs REML: If I run REML in both systems, the model output agrees but the standard errors used in the caterpillar plots don't agree, whereas if I run REML in R and ML in Stata, the caterpillar plots agree, but the model estimates do not.

Can anyone explain what is going on ?

  • $\begingroup$ Robert, have you looked into the Methods and Formulas of Stata's [XT] xtmixed and/or [XT] xtmixed postestimation? They do refer to Pinheiro and Bates (2000), so at least some parts of the math must be the same. $\endgroup$
    – StasK
    Jan 22, 2013 at 15:56
  • $\begingroup$ @StasK I did see a reference to Pinheiro and Bates earlier, but for some reason I can't find it now ! I have seen the Technical Note regarding prediction of random effects; that it uses "standard theory of maximum likelihood" and the given result that the asymptotic variance matrix for re's being the negative inverse of the Hessian. but to be honest this didn't really help me ! [maybe due to my lack of understanding] $\endgroup$ Jan 22, 2013 at 18:54
  • $\begingroup$ Could this be any sort of degrees of freedom correction being done differently in Stata vs R? I am just thinking aloud. $\endgroup$
    – StasK
    Jan 22, 2013 at 19:42
  • $\begingroup$ @StasK I thought about that also, but I concluded that the difference - 1.32 vc 2.13 - was too great. Of course, this is a small sample size - small number of clusters and small number of observations per cluster, so I would not be surprised to learn that whatever it is that is causing it, is being amplified by the sample size. $\endgroup$ Jan 22, 2013 at 21:09

1 Answer 1


According to the [XT] manual for Stata 11:

Standard errors for BLUPs are calculated based on the iterative technique of Bates and Pinheiro (1998, sec. 3.3) for estimating the BLUPs themselves. If estimation is done by REML, these standard errors account for uncertainty in the estimate of $\beta$, while for ML the standard errors treat $\beta$ as known. As such, standard errors of REML-based BLUPs will usually be larger.

As the Stata ML standard errors match the standard errors from R in your example, it seems R is not accounting for uncertainty in estimating $\beta$. Whether it should, I don't know.

From your question, you have tried REML in both Stata and R, and ML in Stata with REML in R. If you try ML in both, you should get the same results in both.


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