Data. You have data as follows:
x1 = c(9,9,8, 11,18,4, 0,0,8, 12,12)
x2 = c(8,8,7, 0,0,4)
x3 = c(5,36,10, 10,6)
Group sample means and variances are given below (from R):
Possible heteroscedasticity. The last sample, which has the smallest size, is markedly more variable
than the others. In these circumstances it is difficult to know, as you have mentioned,
whether the F-statistic in a standard ANOVA is measuring differences among means
or differences among variances. Moreover, you mentioned in discussion at your previous
(linked) question that there may be extraordinary numbers of $0$'s in your data, which
could also contribute to unequal group variances.
ANOVA without equal variance assumption. However, R implements a version
oneway.test of the one-way ANOVA that does not assume equal population variances among groups.
[This is accomplished by using Satterthwaite's corrected degrees of freedom for
the F-statistic, somewhat as in the Welch two-sample t test, which also does not
assume equal variances.]
Because sample variances seem to vary among groups, I would use the Satterthwaite F-statistic of
oneway test as the metric for a permutation test. Because the degrees
of freedom among F-statistics changes from one re-sample to another, it is best to
use the P-values of the F-statistics for the permutation test.
The observed P-value from
oneway.test is obtained as follows:
x = c(x1,x2,x3); g = rep(1:3, c(11,6,5)
oneway.test(x ~ g)
One-way analysis of means (not assuming equal variances)
data: x and g
F = 2.0078, num df = 2.0000, denom df = 8.5842, p-value = 0.1926
pv.obs = oneway.test(x ~ g)$p.val; pv.obs
Permutation test using this metric. Below is a permutation test based on
oneway.test. The permutation
takes place by using
sample(g) to put 23 observations at random into
the three groups. [Without extra parameters,
sample(g) randomly permutes
the elements of
g.] We obtain P-values for $10\,000$ permutations of your data.
pv.re = replicate(10^4, oneway.test(x~sample(g))$p.val)
mean(pv.re <= pv.obs)
Taken at face value, this seems a very large P-value. Often a permutation test
for a particular metric closely imitates the the observed P-value of a single test based on that metric, confirming that assumptions for the single test are not badly awry. The
oneway.test assumes normal data.
Residuals not normal. So it seems worthwhile looking at the normality of the 21 residuals for your data. They are found by subtracting group means from each observation in the group. We subject them to a Shapiro-Wilk test, finding strong rejection of
the null hypothesis of normality (P-value 0.005)---especially strong for such a small amount of data. An important difficulty is the outlying value $36$ in the third group.
r1 = x1 - mean(x1); r2 = x2 - mean(x2); r3 = x3 - mean(x3)
r = c(r1, r2, r3)
Shapiro-Wilk normality test
W = 0.85958, p-value = 0.005038
An important departure from normality of residuals arises from the outlying value $36$ in the third group. It accounts for the point at upper-right in
the normal probability plot below.
Along with a graph at the end of his Answer on the original (linked) page, @Thomas Lumley alluded in passing to the nonnormality of your data.
Stochastic domination. As a final look at your data, it may be worth noting is that Group 2 is stochastically dominated by Groups 1 and 3, as seen in the plot of their three ECDFs below. [The red ECDF
lies to the left of the other two. Because of the many ties, it is not feasible
to confirm what we see with formal Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests.]
plot(ecdf(x1), col="blue", main=hdr)
Satterthwaite one-way ANOVA with normal data. If data of the same sizes as yours arise from normal distributions with
noticeably different means and variances,
oneway.test behaves as intended. It has no problem detecting
differences among the means in spite of differences among the variances.
In the particular case shown below, the P-value is 0.0014.
y1 = rnorm(11, 18, 1)
y2 = rnorm( 6, 14, 2)
y3 = rnorm( 5, 13, 4)
y = c(y1,y2,y3)
pv.oby = oneway.test(y ~ g)$p.val ; pv.oby
Moreover, a permutation test based on
oneway.test gets about the same result, indicating that the data and test are well-matched.
pv.ry = replicate(10^4, oneway.test(y~sample(g))$p.val)
mean(pv.ry <= pv.oby)
Things to try. It is difficult to give definitive reasons for the
behavior of various tests with your data because there are no rejections.
So we can't ponder why one test rejects and another doesn't.
(1) Perhaps you should try checking for heteroscedasticity using Levine's test
which does not assume normal data.
(2) ECDF plots seem to show that Gp 2 is stochastically dominated by both of the other two groups. However, a Kruskal-Wallis test does not reject, and a
permutation test using the K-W test gave about the same (non-significant) P-value as the test itself. My guess is that sample sizes are too small for
these tests to have reasonable power. If you have similar datasets of larger size, it might be worthwhile investigating differences between tests that assume normality
and those that don't.
kruskal.test(x ~ g)$p.val
 0.1181535 # With warning message about ties