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Is the term kernel used in Sklearn to execute the SVD machine learning algorithm conceptually related to the notion of a kernel in linear algebra ( null space )? Or do they happen to use this same name?

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    $\begingroup$ Same name, period. "Kernel" is a heavily overloaded term in mathematics. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel, which lists 15 meanings. $\endgroup$ – whuber Sep 16 '20 at 20:40
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No, as also pointed out in the comments, it's just the same name used for different concepts. In machine learning, kernel commonly describes an inner product representing an underlying feature transformation. In linear algebra, it's just the null space, i.e. $\ker(A)=$ $\{x \ |\ Ax=0\}$.

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