# Interpreting LDA graph in R [duplicate]

I am trying to carry out linear discriminant analysis and plot the results graphically:

aircraft = read_csv(file = "aircraft.csv") %>%
mutate( Period = factor( Period ))

lda.0 = lda( Period ~ Power + Span + Length + Weight + Speed + Range, data = aircraft )

plot( lda.0 )


Using my full dataset, I get the following graph:

How should I be interpreting this graph? What are the LD1 and LD2 on axes, and what do they mean?

The full dataset is too large to include in this post, so I have included a smaller version of the dataset:

structure(list(Year = c(14L, 14L, 14L, 15L, 15L, 15L, 15L, 16L,
16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 16L, 17L, 17L,
17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L, 17L,
18L, 18L, 18L, 18L, 18L, 18L, 18L, 18L, 19L, 19L, 20L, 20L, 20L,
20L, 21L, 21L, 21L, 22L, 22L, 22L, 22L, 22L, 23L, 23L, 23L, 23L,
23L, 23L, 23L, 23L, 23L, 24L, 24L, 24L, 24L, 24L, 25L, 25L, 25L,
25L, 25L, 25L, 25L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L, 26L,
26L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 27L, 28L, 28L, 28L, 28L,
28L), Period = c(1L, 3L, 3L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 3L, 2L,
3L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 3L, 1L, 3L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 1L,
1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 3L,
2L, 3L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 3L, 1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 3L, 2L,
2L, 3L, 1L, 3L, 1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 3L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 2L,
3L, 3L, 1L, 3L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 3L, 1L, 1L, 2L, 3L, 2L,
1L, 2L, 1L, 1L, 1L, 3L, 2L, 1L, 2L), Power = c(82, 82, 223.6,
164, 119, 74.5, 74.5, 279.5, 82, 67, 112, 149, 119, 119, 238.5,
205, 82, 119, 194, 336, 558.9, 287, 388, 164, 194, 194, 186.3,
119, 119, 89.4, 126.7, 149, 119, 536.6, 402, 298, 298, 342.8,
536, 223.6, 521.6, 186.3, 238.5, 287, 335.3, 335.3, 335.3, 335.3,
335.3, 335.3, 357.7, 313, 782.6, 298, 670.6, 223.5, 335.3, 391,
391, 436, 391, 436, 171.4, 350, 298, 223.6, 298, 634, 223.5,
864.4, 760, 503.5, 63.3, 357.7, 812, 335.3, 298, 298, 335.3,
298, 317, 231, 335.3, 432, 918, 745.2, 424.8, 372.6, 782, 626,
544, 335.3, 372.6, 373, 391.2, 864, 894, 179, 74.5, 391.2), Span = c(12.8,
11, 17.9, 14.5, 12.9, 7.5, 11.13, 14.3, 7.8, 11, 11.7, 12.8,
8.5, 13.3, 14.9, 12, 9.4, 15.95, 16.74, 22.2, 23.4, 14.3, 23.72,
11.9, 14.4, 14.4, 9.7, 8, 9.4, 14.55, 9.1, 8.11, 9.5, 20.73,
22.8, 38.4, 14, 26.5, 30.48, 9.7, 15.5, 9.1, 14.17, 10.1, 14.8,
15.62, 14.05, 14.05, 14.8, 15.24, 14, 12.24, 27.2, 8.84, 22.86,
7.7, 9.5, 9.8, 15.93, 15.93, 15.93, 15.93, 13.08, 15.21, 8.94,
9.6, 10.8, 13.72, 8.9, 26.72, 25, 9.6, 8.84, 11.58, 17.3, 12.5,
12.1, 12.09, 9.8, 15.3, 9.08, 17.75, 15.3, 15.15, 27.4, 22, 13.7,
10.3, 22.76, 22.25, 17.25, 11, 12, 9.5, 14.15, 20.4, 20.4, 14.5,
8.84, 11.35), Length = c(7.6, 9, 10.35, 9.8, 7.9, 6.3, 8.28,
9.4, 6.7, 8.3, 8, 8.7, 7.4, 9.6, 8.9, 7.9, 6.2, 10.25, 10.77,
10.9, 12.6, 9.4, 11.86, 9.8, 9.2, 8.9, 8, 6.5, 6.95, 9.83, 7.3,
6.38, 8.5, 13.27, 13.5, 20.85, 9.2, 14.33, 19.16, 6.5, 9.7, 8.1,
9.68, 7.7, 10.8, 11.89, 10.97, 11.28, 9.5, 11.42, 11, 7.3, 18.2,
7.01, 18.08, 6.8, 6.8, 7.1, 11.5, 11.5, 11.5, 11.5, 9.27, 9.78,
6.17, 6.4, 7.32, 10.74, 6.9, 18.97, 15.1, 7.06, 7.17, 9.5, 10.55,
8.38, 8.7, 8.81, 6.7, 9.42, 5.99, 10.27, 10.22, 11, 19.8, 14.63,
11.2, 6.56, 14.88, 13.81, 12.6, 7, 7.5, 7.2, 9.91, 14.8, 15,
9.8, 7.17, 8.94), Weight = c(1070, 830, 2200, 1946, 1190, 653,
930, 1575, 676, 920, 1353, 1550, 888, 1275, 1537, 1292, 611,
1350, 1700, 3312, 4920, 1510, 3625, 900, 1665, 1640, 1081, 625,
932, 1378, 886, 902, 1070, 5670, 3636, 12925, 2107, 4770, 6060,
1192, 1900, 1050, 2155, 1379, 2858, 3380, 2290, 2290, 2347, 3308,
2630, 1333, 10000, 1351, 6250, 885, 1531, 1438, 3820, 3820, 3820,
3820, 1905, 2646, 1151, 1266, 1575, 2383, 860, 7983, 6200, 1484,
567, 1867, 4350, 1935, 1823, 2253, 1487, 2220, 1244, 2700, 2280,
3652, 8165, 5500, 3568, 1414, 5875, 5460, 4310, 1500, 1795, 1628,
2449, 6900, 6900, 1900, 567, 2102), Speed = c(105L, 145L, 135L,
138L, 140L, 177L, 113L, 230L, 175L, 106L, 140L, 170L, 175L, 157L,
183L, 201L, 209L, 145L, 120L, 135L, 152L, 176L, 140L, 190L, 175L,
175L, 205L, 196L, 165L, 146L, 175L, 222L, 159L, 166L, 158L, 146L,
185L, 120L, 157L, 226L, 205L, 230L, 161L, 251L, 171L, 206L, 171L,
171L, 235L, 161L, 145L, 245L, 183L, 214L, 180L, 220L, 237L, 254L,
169L, 169L, 169L, 169L, 153L, 183L, 261L, 245L, 235L, 200L, 246L,
174L, 180L, 319L, 146L, 251L, 230L, 290L, 230L, 233L, 250L, 255L,
233L, 175L, 230L, 180L, 145L, 185L, 196L, 298L, 183L, 198L, 195L,
300L, 270L, 297L, 225L, 212L, 195L, 197L, 146L, 296L), Range = c(400L,
402L, 500L, 500L, 400L, 350L, 402L, 700L, 525L, 300L, 560L, 550L,
250L, 450L, 700L, 600L, 175L, 450L, 450L, 450L, 600L, 800L, 500L,
600L, 600L, 600L, 600L, 400L, 250L, 400L, 350L, 547L, 450L, 1770L,
800L, 2365L, 925L, 400L, 1205L, 580L, 600L, 600L, 684L, 402L,
563L, 644L, 885L, 885L, 800L, 440L, 557L, 750L, 3600L, 500L,
805L, 330L, 600L, 628L, 1640L, 1640L, 1640L, 1640L, 604L, 1046L,
644L, 500L, 600L, 1046L, 550L, 1585L, 650L, 917L, 515L, 805L,
750L, 1110L, 772L, 1127L, 500L, 850L, 523L, 850L, 900L, 700L,
668L, 700L, 1706L, 600L, 1385L, 1000L, 902L, 600L, 500L, 450L,
579L, 1125L, 1300L, 660L, 515L, 756L)), row.names = c(NA, 100L
), class = "data.frame")

• You are essentially asking to explain what LDA is. What have you read about it? Nov 10, 2020 at 6:50
• @ttnphns I've read the through regarding LDA as a classification method, but I still don't understand what the LD1 and LD2 are. Nov 10, 2020 at 8:27
• Ok then ). Take to read some of my answers tagged "discriminant-analysis". I discuss in what sense LDA is a dimensionality reduction method and what are the discriminants. Nov 10, 2020 at 8:32
• @ttnphns I thing I got it: "Discriminants are the axes and the latent variables which differentiate the classes most strongly." stats.stackexchange.com/a/22889/163242 This is it, right? Nov 10, 2020 at 8:49
• Yes, Right you are. Nov 10, 2020 at 10:13