I am working with SPSS where the output specifies the following weighting constant values for different M-estimators:

Huber’s M-estimator with c=1.339, Andrews’ wave with c=1.34π, Hampel’s M-estimator with a=1.7, b=3.4, and c=8.5 Tukey’s biweight with c=4.685.

What is the origin of these values, how are they estimated? Is there any starting point to this topic?


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