I am looking to understand the following table from this article to better understand some statistical stuff.
The article is exploring the outcomes of meat via 3 factors(marinade, temperature and cooking time). And they state the tools used in the statistical analysis as this:
Descriptive and inferential statistics were used according to procedures described by Anderson.  The Dixon’s Q-test was applied in order to examine outlier values. A three-factors´ ANOVA was applied to evaluate the influence of the factors (marinade type, cooking temperature, and cooking time). Differences between two means were identified using an unpaired t Student test(P< .05). For multiple comparisons, Fisher´s Least Significant Difference (LSD) test was applied. The significance level was set at P<.05 in all cases. Discriminant analysis was performed to ascertain which of the instrumental parameters (pH, instrumental color and SF) were useful in differentiating among the beef and meat analog samples. Statistical analysis was carried out with Minitab® software (Version 18.1, Minitab Inc., PA, USA).
A couple of things I want to understand from this table are:
- How are the values in table expressed as Mean (since there is only one measurement) and what are the values in parentheses?
- What does it mean that different superscripts in the same column differ significantly (P < 0.05)
- Of the statistical analysis tools that I quoted, which ones produce this table?