I'm trying to help a scientist design a study for the occurrence of salmonella microbes. He would like to compare an experimental antimicrobial formulation against a chlorine (bleach) at poultry farms. Because background rates of salmonella differ over time, he plans to measure % poultry w/salmonella before treatment, and after treatment. So the measurement will be the difference of before/after % salmonella for the experimental vs. chlorine formulas.
Can anyone advise on how to estimate the sample sizes necessary? Let's say the background rate is 50%; after bleach it's 20%; and we want to detect whether the experimental formulation changes the rate by +/- 10%. thank you
EDIT: What I'm struggling with is how to incorporate the background rates. Let's call them p3 and p4, the "before" salmonella rates for bleach and experimental samples, respectively. So the statistic to be estimated is the difference of differences: Experimental(After-Before) - Bleach(After-Before) = (p0-p2) - (p3-p1). To fully account for the sampling variation of "before" rates p2 and p3 in the sample-size calculation --- is it as simple as using p0(1-p0)+p1(1-p1)+p2(1-p2)+p3(1-p3) wherever there's a variation term in the sample-size equation? Let all samples sizes be equal, n1 = n2 = n.