I have two predictors x1 and x2 and the relationship between x1 and y is quadratic. Therefore I transformed the x1 by squaring it then added another interaction term to meet the assumptions of the linear regression model. The final regression is: y = β0+β1x1x2+β2x1^2+β3x2 Below is the scatter plot between x1 and y and the transformation that I have done enter image description here enter image description here

enter image description here

After the transformation and adding an interaction term, the final model looks like this.enter image description here

lm(formula = y ~ interaction + x1sq + x2, data = df)

     Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max 
-0.61828 -0.13661  0.00163  0.13741  0.67368 

              Estimate Std. Error  t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept)  0.5056567  0.0148510    34.05   <2e-16 ***
interaction -1.0011209  0.0007353 -1361.44   <2e-16 ***
x1sq         1.9977889  0.0011077  1803.59   <2e-16 ***
x2           0.5004741  0.0031027   161.30   <2e-16 ***
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 0.2003 on 996 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.9998,    Adjusted R-squared:  0.9998 
F-statistic: 1.642e+06 on 3 and 996 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16

              (Intercept)   interaction          x1sq            x2
(Intercept)  2.205524e-04  2.786894e-07 -5.829721e-06 -3.937890e-05
interaction  2.786894e-07  5.407276e-07 -3.093296e-08 -4.557951e-08
x1sq        -5.829721e-06 -3.093296e-08  1.226938e-06  2.368341e-07
x2          -3.937890e-05 -4.557951e-08  2.368341e-07  9.626868e-06

I do not wish to abandon the linear regression model and I want to interpret the model hyper-parameters. Is there anything that I can do to achieve this?


1 Answer 1


What you have is almost exactly:

$$ y = 0.5+ 2 x_1^2 + 0.5 x_2 - x_1 x_2.$$

You ned to apply your understanding of the subject matter to interpret the coefficients.* With such simple coefficients and small standard errors relative to the scale of your $y$ values, I suspect that there is some theoretical relationship underlying your model's results.

Try rearranging or combining the terms in the above equation in a way that might make sense for your subject matter. Without knowing more about your subject matter, it's hard to provide more precise advice.

*Technically these aren't called "hyperparameters". From Wikipedia: "In machine learning, a hyperparameter is a parameter whose value is used to control the learning process." (Emphasis added.) The coefficient estimates in the model are results of the the learning/modeling process.

  • $\begingroup$ Hi EdM, thank you very much for your kind support. Unfortunately the predictor values are given with the attribute names exactly as stated. In other words, I am unable to interpret the coefficients using domin knowdlege. What would you interpret the results in this case? $\endgroup$
    – Kevin Li
    Mar 1, 2022 at 21:19
  • $\begingroup$ @KevinLi then you can let the model coefficients speak for themselves. You have a pretty precise model of $y$ as a function of $x_1$ and $x_2$. If anyone provides you with values of $x_1$ and $x_2$ within the ranges you examined, you could return a good estimate of the corresponding $y$ value. I don't know what beyond that one might "interpret" from the model, if there is no underlying subject matter. $\endgroup$
    – EdM
    Mar 1, 2022 at 21:31
  • $\begingroup$ The coefficients cannot be interpreted as I cannot isolate the effect of one predictor. In addition, I cannot find a good candidate model satisfying the assumptions without the x1^2 quadratic term. $\endgroup$
    – Kevin Li
    Mar 1, 2022 at 21:37
  • $\begingroup$ @KevinLi that's the whole point of an interaction term: sometimes you can't "isolate the effect of one predictor" without reference to the value of another predictor and you need to include an interaction between them. That's the situation with these data. You interpret the individual coefficients for $x_1$ and $x_2$ as their individual associations with outcome when the other has a value of 0. You interpret the interaction coefficient as how much the effects of $x_1$ and $x_2$ depend on each other's value. $\endgroup$
    – EdM
    Mar 1, 2022 at 21:58

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