It's complicated. It appears that the Gini coefficient based on the ROC curve was invented by analogy with the economic Gini coefficient based on the Lorenz curve. It's not a perfect analogy – e.g., the Lorenz curve is necessarily convex and the ROC curve is only necessarily monotone. They do happen to be the same in some situations
Also, if you have fitted probabilities $\hat p_i$ for each individual, and you have a well-calibrated model (ie, $\hat p_i$ really does estimate $P[Y=1|X=x_i]$), there is some relationship between the two in concept. If you have a well-calibrated model, you can summarise how well it predicts by considering the variability in the predictions – since, ex hypothesi, different predictions for different people reflects genuine discriminatory power. So, you can look at the $\hat p$ and ask how unequal they are, with more inequality implying better discrimination.
However, the simple relationship between AUC and the economic Gini coefficient doesn't hold in general.