I am having trouble finding the technical term for a scale used in survey research with opposite values at both ends of the scale. For instance, how can I refer to a scale of the following kind: In your opinion, who is responsible for health care? Government (1) --- (2) --- (3) --- (4) --- (5) Citizens?
Your example is a poorly defined scale as it's not clear what the intermediate values mean - a sharing out of responsibility, or an allocation of responsibility to mid-level bodies between Government & the citizenry, or perhaps something else. (Furthermore the question could be interpreted as asking either about an actual or a wished-for state of affairs.) Likert scales are often used in surveys to measure the level of agreement or disagreement with a statement, commonly on a five-point scale from 'Strongly agree', 'Agree', 'Neutral', 'Disagree', 'Strongly agree' - perhaps it's this term you're looking for. If you're asking specifically about scales where only the extremes are labelled, they're called bipolar.
Semantic differential might be what you are looking for. To quote the link:
Osgood's semantic differential was designed to measure the connotative meaning of concepts. The respondent is asked to choose where his or her position lies, on a scale between two bipolar adjectives (for example: "Adequate-Inadequate", "Good-Evil" or "Valuable-Worthless").