I am having trouble to interpret tukey's post hoc result from the following

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They incorporated post-hoc test results into a table using the ๐‘Žโ‰ค๐‘<๐‘ style notation (๐‘Ž,๐‘,๐‘,... correspond to groups) but how to interpret it?

  • Is Normal > osteopenic, osteoporotic means Normal has higher significant difference than osteopenic and osteoporotic ?
  • In R, the results look like the following, is that mean Neutral has higher significant difference than Friends ? more specifically how to I write this result in ๐‘Žโ‰ค๐‘<๐‘ style notation? enter image description here


  • $\begingroup$ One thing you are going to need to answer the question is the means for each group --- Neutral, Friends, and so on. ... Some software will report a positive mean difference when the values in the first group are larger, and a negative mean difference when the values in the second group are larger. However, since this function in R is reporting all the mean differences as positive, I suspect this function is not following that convention. $\endgroup$ Aug 4 at 0:44


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