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How does the formula for the lmer function work?

Some examples:

lmer(Reaction ~ Days + (1|Subject) + (0+Days|Subject), sleepstudy)

On the left of ~ sign is the dependent variable and on the right comes all the independent variables separated by the + sign.

Is there any difference between + and *?

What does 1|Batch mean? Does it have to do with the intercept? With being a random or a fixed effect?

What does Day|Subjects mean?


marked as duplicate by chl May 15 '13 at 10:18

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  • 2
    $\begingroup$ (1|Batch) means "one intercept per batch". $\endgroup$ – Stéphane Laurent May 15 '13 at 8:36
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    $\begingroup$ (Days|Subject) means a random intercept and a random slope for each subject. (1|Subject) would mean only a random intercept but a common slope across subjects. $\endgroup$ – COOLSerdash May 15 '13 at 9:18