# How to run a PCA or Factor Analysis when you know one column of the factor loadings

I have this application where I have a direction that I want to keep fixed when I'm running a PCA or factor analysis. Is this possible? I just want to keep a column of the loadings matrix fixed.

How can I do that?

If this is not possible. Can I do any other type of analysis with this direction?

• Yes: project your matrix $\mathbf{A}$ along the unit direction $\mathbf{v}$ you want to keep, i.e. $\mathbf{A}_1 = (\mathbf{I}-\mathbf{v}\mathbf{v}^\top)\mathbf{A}$, then do PCA on $\mathbf{A}_1$ per usual, but replace the zero eigenvalue now accompanying the direction $\mathbf{v}$ with $\mathbf{v}^\top\mathbf{A}\mathbf{v}$ at the end. Jan 24, 2023 at 4:51
• Nice. And I guess if I had 2 such directions that I want to preserve, I would just project on the plane generated by $v_1$ and $v_2$. Run PCA "per usual" and then replace the zero eigenvalues associated to the two directions with $v_1^TAv_1$ and $v_2^TAv_2$. Right? Jan 24, 2023 at 5:25
• Yes sounds good. Jan 24, 2023 at 6:09
• Jan 24, 2023 at 14:03
• @cdalitz thanks for this comment; looking at that post reminded me to emphasize: $\mathbf{A}$ has a datapoint in each column in my comment, so $\mathbf{A}=\mathbf{X}^\top$ in my case. (If I'm not mistaken, your answer leaves out a detail as well :)). Jan 24, 2023 at 16:01