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I am currently faced with the question. Do I include the variable XY reflectively, formatively or as a scale value in the model?

Theoretically, there is a lot to be said for a formative measurement model, since it is primarily knowledge that is being asked about.

Now, the scale was determined by the authors using a factor analysis.

Can I simply decide to take the model formatively, even if the author may not see it that way? Or does the factor analysis performed imply that the author assumes a reflective measurement model? Or would one also, if one were to assume a formative measurement model, have carried out an exploratory factor analysis beforehand? Probably not, right?

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A reflective (not "reflexive") model requires that scale items are correlated with each other, since they're affected by the same underlying factor. In a formative model, there's no need for items to be correlated with each other, for instance you might have a risk score factor that's made up of several uncorrelated items that ask about different contributing risks.

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